JPL: InSight to Take First Look Deep Inside Mars

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Re: InSight Prepares to Take Mars' Temperature

Post by neufer » Wed Feb 13, 2019 4:36 pm

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Wed Feb 13, 2019 4:14 pm

DLR 'Mole' deployed on surface of Mars
German Aerospace Center (DLR) | 2019 Feb 13
  • Hamlet : Act I, scene V
Ghost: [Beneath] Swear.

HAMLET: Well said, old mole! canst work i' the earth so fast?
  • A worthy pioner! Once more remove, good friends.
HORATIO: O day and night, but this is wondrous strange!
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InSight Is the Newest Mars Weather Service

Post by bystander » Tue Feb 19, 2019 11:39 pm

InSight Is the Newest Mars Weather Service
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 Feb 19
No matter how cold your winter has been, it's probably not as chilly as Mars. Check for yourself: Starting today, the public can get a daily weather report from NASA's InSight lander.

This public tool includes stats on temperature, wind and air pressure recorded by InSight. Sunday's weather was typical for the lander's location during late northern winter: a high of 2 degrees Fahrenheit (-17 degrees Celsius) and low of -138 degrees Fahrenheit (-95 degrees Celsius), with a top wind speed of 37.8 mph (16.9 m/s) in a southwest direction. The tool was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, with partners at Cornell University and Spain's Centro de Astrobiología. JPL leads the InSight mission.

Through a package of sensors called the Auxiliary Payload Subsystem (APSS), InSight will provide more around-the-clock weather information than any previous mission to the Martian surface. The lander records this data during each second of every sol (a Martian day) and sends it to Earth on a daily basis. The spacecraft is designed to continue that operation for at least the next two Earth years, allowing it to study seasonal changes as well.

The tool will be geeky fun for meteorologists while offering everyone who uses it a chance to be transported to another planet. ...

Weather on Mars: Chilly with a chance of ‘dust devils’
Cornell University | 2019 Feb 19
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Re: JPL: InSight to Take First Look Deep Inside Mars

Post by Nitpicker » Wed Feb 20, 2019 12:28 am

And InSight is only 4.5 degrees north of the Martian equator, very much in the tropics.

I don't suppose the balmy south-westerly winds would feel like much at this spot (or any spot) on Mars.

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Re: JPL: InSight to Take First Look Deep Inside Mars

Post by neufer » Wed Feb 20, 2019 1:30 am

Nitpicker wrote:
Wed Feb 20, 2019 12:28 am

And InSight is only 4.5 degrees north of the Martian equator, very much in the tropics.

I don't suppose the balmy south-westerly winds would feel like much at this spot (or any spot) on Mars.
As with the Earth, Subtropical winds
"in a southwest direction"

are, in fact, north-easterly Trade winds.
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Re: JPL: InSight to Take First Look Deep Inside Mars

Post by Nitpicker » Wed Feb 20, 2019 2:55 am

I did ponder that (and nearly asked the question because of the ambiguous wording in the news article) but decided that the Mars weather service would probably be using the common definition of wind direction:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_direction
Wind direction is reported by the direction from which it originates.
[Did I really need to quote that to you? :) ]

So, I suspect they actually were predominantly SW winds (at least at ground level) on sol 81, and predominantly WNW winds on the sols prior. (Just noticed the news article doesn't match the wind speed table in the weather service report, which doesn't seem to match the graph.)

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Re: JPL: InSight to Take First Look Deep Inside Mars

Post by neufer » Wed Feb 20, 2019 3:44 am

Nitpicker wrote:
Wed Feb 20, 2019 2:55 am

I did ponder that (and nearly asked the question because of the ambiguous wording in the news article) but decided that the Mars weather service would probably be using the common definition of wind direction:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_direction
Wind direction is reported by the direction from which it originates.
[Did I really need to quote that to you? :) ]

So, I suspect they actually were predominantly SW winds (at least at ground level) on sol 81, and predominantly WNW winds on the sols prior. (Just noticed the news article doesn't match the wind speed table in the weather service report, which doesn't seem to match the graph.)
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
Wind direction is normally reported by the direction FROM which it originates (since weather vanes point INTO the wind).

However, the report here specifically states that the wind itself blew "IN a southwest direction".

If they were, in fact, SW winds then they should have reported that the wind itself blew "FROM a southwest direction".

[E.g., mid-latitude prevailing WESTERLIES blow in an EAST or EASTWARD direction.]
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Re: JPL: InSight to Take First Look Deep Inside Mars

Post by Nitpicker » Wed Feb 20, 2019 4:14 am

I agree. I think the news article incorrectly used "in" instead of "from". The actual weather report -- https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/weather/ -- just says "wind direction", which has probably been misinterpreted by the author of the news article.

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DLR: InSight's "Mole" Starts Hammering into the Martian Soil

Post by bystander » Sat Mar 02, 2019 6:06 pm

DLR's HP3 Experiment Starts Hammering into the Martian Soil
German Aerospace Center (DLR) | 2019 Mar 01
On 28 February 2019, the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) ‘Mole’ fully automatically hammered its way into the Martian subsurface for the first time. In a first step, it penetrated to a depth between 18 and 50 centimetres into the Martian soil with 4000 hammer blows over a period of four hours. "On its way into the depths, the mole seems to have hit a stone, tilted about 15 degrees and pushed it aside or passed it," reports Tilman Spohn, Principal Investigator of the HP3 experiment. "The Mole then worked its way up against another stone at an advanced depth until the planned four-hour operating time of the first sequence expired. Tests on Earth showed that the rod-shaped penetrometer is able to push smaller stones to the side, which is very time-consuming.

After a cooling-off period, the researchers will command a second four-hour hammering sequence. In the following weeks, with further intervals, they want to reach a target depth of three to five metres on sufficiently porous ground. The Mole will pull a five-metre-long tether equipped with temperature sensors into the Martian soil behind it. The cable is equipped with 14 temperature sensors in order to measure the temperature distribution with depth and its change with time after reaching the target depth and thus the heat flow from the interior of Mars. ...
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InSight

Post by Fred the Cat » Wed Mar 20, 2019 5:55 pm

InSight hit something out of sight. Hope they can root out the problem. :(

Like digging post holes. There's always something under the surface you don't expect. :?

Mars Insight’s “Mole” Hits a Snag
Sky & Telescope | 2019 Mar 11
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DLR: Testing the InSight 'Mole' with a Cubic Meter of Mars

Post by bystander » Sat Apr 13, 2019 6:42 pm

A cubic metre of Mars
Tests for the InSight 'Mole'

German Aerospace Center (DLR) | 2019 Apr 11

A blue box, a cubic metre of Mars-like sand, a rock, a fully-functional model of the Mars 'Mole' and a seismometer – these are the main components with which the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) is simulating the current situation on Mars. After its first hammering operation on 28 February 2019, the DLR Heat and Physical Properties Package (HP³), the Mars Mole, was only able to drive itself about 30 centimetres into the Martian subsurface. DLR planetary researchers and engineers are now analysing how this could have happened and looking into what measures could be taken to remedy the situation. "We are investigating and testing various possible scenarios to find out what led to the 'Mole' stopping," explains Torben Wippermann, Test Leader at the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen. The basis for the scientists' work: some images, temperature data, data from the radiometer and recordings made by the French Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) during a brief hammering test conducted on 26 March 2019.

When the NASA InSight lander arrived on the Martian surface, everything looked even better than expected. Although the lander's camera showed numerous rocks some distance away, the immediate surroundings were free of rocks and debris. The reason why the 'Mole' hammered its way quickly into the ground after being placed on the surface of Mars and was then unable to continue its progress is now being diagnosed remotely. "There are various possible explanations, to which we will have to react differently," says Matthias Grott, a planetary researcher and the HP³ Project Scientist. A possible explanation is that the 'Mole' has created a cavity around itself and is no longer sufficiently constrained by the friction between its body and the surrounding sand. ...
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InSight Detects First Likely 'Quake' on Mars

Post by bystander » Wed Apr 24, 2019 8:24 pm

InSight Detects First Likely 'Quake' on Mars
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 Apr 23
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
NASA's Mars InSight lander has measured and recorded for the first time ever a likely "marsquake."

The faint seismic signal, detected by the lander's Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) instrument, was recorded on April 6, the lander's 128th Martian day, or sol. This is the first recorded trembling that appears to have come from inside the planet, as opposed to being caused by forces above the surface, such as wind. Scientists still are examining the data to determine the exact cause of the signal. ...

The new seismic event was too small to provide solid data on the Martian interior, which is one of InSight's main objectives. The Martian surface is extremely quiet, allowing SEIS, InSight's specially designed seismometer, to pick up faint rumbles. In contrast, Earth's surface is quivering constantly from seismic noise created by oceans and weather. An event of this size in Southern California would be lost among dozens of tiny crackles that occur every day. ...

First 'Marsquake' Captured by UK Sensors
UK Space Agency | 2019 Apr 23
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InSight Captures Sunrise and Sunset on Mars

Post by bystander » Wed May 01, 2019 4:15 pm

InSight Captures Sunrise and Sunset on Mars
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 May 01

NASA's InSight lander captured a series of sunrise and sunset images.

A camera on the spacecraft's robotic arm snapped the photos on April 24 and 25, the 145th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. In local Mars time, the shots were taken starting around 5:30 a.m. and then again starting around 6:30 p.m. As a bonus, a camera under the lander's deck also caught clouds drifting across the Martian sky at sunset.

These images are available as both "raw" and color-corrected versions. It's easier to see some details in the raw versions, but the latter more accurately show the images as the human eye would see them. Much farther from Mars than it is from Earth, the Sun appears only about two-thirds the size that it does when viewed from Earth. ...

The first mission to send back such images was the Viking 1 lander, which captured a sunset on Aug. 21, 1976; Viking 2 captured a sunrise on June 14, 1978. Since then, both sunrises and sunsets have been recorded by the Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity rovers, among other missions.
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InSight's Team Tries New Strategy to Help the 'Mole'

Post by bystander » Wed Jun 05, 2019 6:04 pm

InSight's Team Tries New Strategy to Help the 'Mole'
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 Jun 05
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
InSight: A Plan to Get the Mole Moving Again ~ Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Scientists and engineers have a new plan for getting NASA InSight's heat probe, also known as the "mole," digging again on Mars. Part of an instrument called the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3), the mole is a self-hammering spike designed to dig as much as 16 feet (5 meters) below the surface and record temperature.

But the mole hasn't been able to dig deeper than about 12 inches (30 centimeters) below the Martian surface since Feb. 28, 2019. The device's support structure blocks the lander's cameras from viewing the mole, so the team plans to use InSight's robotic arm to lift the structure out of the way. Depending on what they see, the team might use InSight's robotic arm to help the mole further later this summer. ...

For the last several months, testing and analysis have been conducted at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which leads the InSight mission, and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), which provided HP3, to understand what is preventing the mole from digging. Team members now believe the most likely cause is an unexpected lack of friction in the soil around InSight - something very different from soil seen on other parts of Mars. The mole is designed so that loose soil flows around it, adding friction that works against its recoil, allowing it to dig. Without enough friction, it will bounce in place. ...
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InSight Uncovers the 'Mole'

Post by bystander » Mon Jul 01, 2019 8:04 pm

InSight Uncovers the 'Mole'
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 Jul 01
22590_PIA23308-web[1].gif
On June 28, 2019, NASA's InSight lander used its robotic arm to move the support
structure for its digging instrument, informally called the "mole." This view was
captured by the fisheye Instrument Context Camera under the lander's deck.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Behold the "mole": The heat-sensing spike that NASA's InSight lander deployed on the Martian surface is now visible. Last week, the spacecraft's robotic arm successfully removed the support structure of the mole, which has been unable to dig, and placed it to the side. Getting the structure out of the way gives the mission team a view of the mole — and maybe a way to help it dig.

"We've completed the first step in our plan to save the mole," said Troy Hudson of a scientist and engineer with the InSight mission at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "We're not done yet. But for the moment, the entire team is elated because we're that much closer to getting the mole moving again."

Part of an instrument called the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3), the self-hammering mole is designed to dig down as much as 16 feet (5 meters) and take Mars' temperature. But the mole hasn't been able to dig deeper than about 12 inches (30 centimeters), so on Feb. 28, 2019 the team commanded the instrument to stop hammering so that they could determine a path forward.

Scientists and engineers have been conducting tests to save the mole at JPL, which leads the InSight mission, as well as at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), which provided HP3. Based on DLR testing, the soil may not provide the kind of friction the mole was designed for. Without friction to balance the recoil from the self-hammering motion, the mole would simply bounce in place rather than dig.
The InSight Mission Logbook
German Aerospace Center (DLR)
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InSight 'Hears' Peculiar Sounds on Mars

Post by bystander » Wed Oct 02, 2019 12:57 am

InSight 'Hears' Peculiar Sounds on Mars
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 Oct 01
Put an ear to the ground on Mars and you'll be rewarded with a symphony of sounds. Granted, you'll need superhuman hearing, but NASA's InSight lander comes equipped with a very special "ear."

The spacecraft's exquisitely sensitive seismometer, called the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS), can pick up vibrations as subtle as a breeze. The instrument was provided by the French space agency, Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), and its partners.

SEIS was designed to listen for marsquakes. Scientists want to study how the seismic waves of these quakes move through the planet's interior, revealing the deep inner structure of Mars for the first time.

But after the seismometer was set down by InSight's robotic arm, Mars seemed shy. It didn't produce its first rumbling until this past April, and this first quake turned out to be an odd duck. It had a surprisingly high-frequency seismic signal compared to what the science team has heard since then. Out of more than 100 events detected to date, about 21 are strongly considered to be quakes. The remainder could be quakes as well, but the science team hasn't ruled out other causes. ...
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Re: InSight 'Hears' Peculiar Sounds on Mars

Post by neufer » Wed Oct 02, 2019 1:27 am

bystander wrote:
Wed Oct 02, 2019 12:57 am
InSight 'Hears' Peculiar Sounds on Mars
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 Oct 01
But after the seismometer was set down by InSight's robotic arm, Mars seemed shy. It didn't produce its first rumbling until this past April, and this first quake turned out to be an odd duck. It had a surprisingly high-frequency seismic signal compared to what the science team has heard since then. Out of more than 100 events detected to date, about 21 are strongly considered to be quakes. The remainder could be quakes as well, but the science team hasn't ruled out other causes. ...
If it quakes like an odd duck it's an odd duck.
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Re: InSight 'Hears' Peculiar Sounds on Mars

Post by Ann » Wed Oct 02, 2019 12:57 pm

neufer wrote:
Wed Oct 02, 2019 1:27 am
bystander wrote:
Wed Oct 02, 2019 12:57 am
InSight 'Hears' Peculiar Sounds on Mars
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 Oct 01
But after the seismometer was set down by InSight's robotic arm, Mars seemed shy. It didn't produce its first rumbling until this past April, and this first quake turned out to be an odd duck. It had a surprisingly high-frequency seismic signal compared to what the science team has heard since then. Out of more than 100 events detected to date, about 21 are strongly considered to be quakes. The remainder could be quakes as well, but the science team hasn't ruled out other causes. ...
If it quakes like an odd duck it's an odd duck.
Quake, quake! An odd duck.
Claudio Gennari/Flickr/CC BY 2.0
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Push to Save the Mole

Post by bystander » Fri Oct 04, 2019 5:46 pm

Push to Save the InSight's Heat Probe
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 Oct 03
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
NASA InSight's Robotic Arm Helps Out its Mole on Mars ~ Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
NASA's InSight lander, which is on a mission to explore the deep interior of Mars, positioned its robotic arm this past weekend to assist the spacecraft's self-hammering heat probe. Known as "the mole," the probe has been unable to dig more than about 14 inches (35 centimeters) since it began burying itself into the ground on Feb. 28, 2019.

The maneuver is in preparation for a tactic, to be tried over several weeks, called "pinning."

"We're going to try pressing the side of the scoop against the mole, pinning it to the wall of its hole," said InSight Deputy Principal Investigator Sue Smrekar of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "This might increase friction enough to keep it moving forward when mole hammering resumes."

Whether the extra pressure on the mole will compensate for the unique soil remains an unknown. ...

A fresh attempt for the first ‘Mole’ on Mars
German Aerospace Center (DLR) | 2019 Oct 03
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Mars InSight's 'Mole' Is Moving Again

Post by bystander » Fri Oct 25, 2019 6:29 pm

Mars InSight's 'Mole' Is Moving Again
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2019 Oct 17
NASA's InSight spacecraft has used its robotic arm to help its heat probe, known as "the mole," dig nearly 2 centimeters (3/4 of an inch) over the past week. While modest, the movement is significant: Designed to dig as much as 16 feet (5 meters) underground to gauge the heat escaping from the planet's interior, the mole has only managed to partially bury itself since it started hammering in February 2019.

The recent movement is the result of a new strategy, arrived at after extensive testing on Earth, which found that unexpectedly strong soil is holding up the mole's progress. The mole needs friction from surrounding soil in order to move: Without it, recoil from its self-hammering action will cause it to simply bounce in place. Pressing the scoop on InSight's robotic arm against the mole, a new technique called "pinning," appears to provide the probe with the friction it needs to continue digging.

Since Oct. 8, 2019, the mole has hammered 220 times over three separate occasions. Images sent down from the spacecraft's cameras have shown the mole gradually progressing into the ground. It will take more time — and hammering — for the team to see how far the mole can go. ...

DLR InSight Mission Logbook
German Aerospace Center (DLR) | 2019 Oct 25
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InSight to Push on Top of the 'Mole'

Post by bystander » Fri Feb 21, 2020 4:36 pm

Mars InSight Lander to Push on Top of the 'Mole'
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2020 Feb 21

Engineers have a plan for pushing down on the heat probe, which has been stuck at the Martian surface for a year.

After nearly a year of trying to dig into the Martian surface, the heat probe belonging to NASA's InSight lander is about to get a push. The mission team plans to command the scoop on InSight's robotic arm to press down on the "mole," the mini pile driver designed to hammer itself as much as 16 feet (5 meters) down. They hope that pushing down on the mole's top, also called the back cap, will keep it from backing out of its hole on Mars, as it did twice in recent months after nearly burying itself.

Part of an instrument called the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, or HP3, the mole is a 16-inch-long (40-centimeter-long) spike equipped with an internal hammering mechanism. While burrowing into the soil, it is designed to drag with it a ribbonlike tether that extends from the spacecraft. Temperature sensors are embedded along the tether to measure heat coming deep from within the planet's interior to reveal important scientific details about the formation of Mars and all rocky planets, including Earth.

The team has avoided pushing on the back cap until now to avoid any potential damage to the tether. ...
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Re: InSight to Push on Top of the 'Mole'

Post by neufer » Fri Feb 21, 2020 6:34 pm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whac-A-Mole wrote:


<<Whac-A-Mole is a popular arcade redemption game invented in 1976 by Aaron Fechter of Creative Engineering, Inc. A typical Whac-A-Mole machine consists of a large, waist-level cabinet with five holes in its top and a large, soft, black mallet. Each hole contains a single plastic mole and the machinery necessary to move it up and down. Once the game starts, the moles will begin to pop up from their holes at random. The object of the game is to force the individual moles back into their holes by hitting them directly on the head with the mallet, thereby adding to the player's score. The more quickly this is done the higher the final score will be.

The term "Whac-a-mole" is used colloquially to denote a repetitious and futile task: each time a task is finished or a problem is dealt with, yet another task/problem appears elsewhere. In a programming/debugging context it refers to the fact that fixing a bug has a certain chance of creating a new bug which itself needs to be fixed. In a web context, it refers to the process of fending off recurring spammers, vandals or miscreants.>>
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A Year of Surprising Science from InSight

Post by bystander » Tue Feb 25, 2020 8:40 pm

A Year of Surprising Science from InSight
NASA | JPL-Caltech | InSight | 2020 Feb 24
A new understanding of Mars is beginning to emerge, thanks to the first year of NASA's InSight lander mission. Findings described in a set of six papers published today reveal a planet alive with quakes, dust devils and strange magnetic pulses.

Five of the papers were published in Nature Geoscience. An additional paper in Nature Communications details the InSight spacecraft's landing site, a shallow crater nicknamed "Homestead Hollow" in a region called Elysium Planitia.

InSight is the first mission dedicated to looking deep beneath the Martian surface. Among its science tools are a seismometer for detecting quakes, sensors for gauging wind and air pressure, a magnetometer, and a heat flow probe designed to take the planet's temperature.

While the team continues to work on getting the probe into the Martian surface as intended, the ultra-sensitive seismometer, called the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS), has enabled scientists to "hear" multiple trembling events from hundreds to thousands of miles away.

Seismic waves are affected by the materials they move through, giving scientists a way to study the composition of the planet's inner structure. Mars can help the team better understand how all rocky planets, including Earth, first formed. ...

First Results of the InSight Mission
German Aerospace Center (DLR) | 2020 Feb 24

First Direct Seismic Measurements Reveal a Geologically Active Mars
University of Maryland | Computer, Mathematical, & Natural Sciences | 2020 Feb 24

Lander Offers New InSights on Martian Magnetic Field
Planetary Science Institute | 2020 Feb 24

InSight Detects Gravity Waves, Devilish Dust on Mars
Cornell University | 2020 Feb 24

Geology of the InSight Landing Site on Mars ~ M. Golombek et al The Seismicity of Mars ~ D. Giardini et al Initial Results from the InSight Mission on Mars ~ W. Bruce Banerdt et al Constraints on the Shallow Elastic and Anelastic Structure of Mars from InSight Seismic Data ~ P. Lognonné et al Crustal and Time-Varying Magnetic Fields at the InSight Landing Site on Mars ~ Catherine L. Johnson et al The Atmosphere of Mars as Observed by Insight ~ Don Banfield et al
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Re: A Year of Surprising Science from InSight

Post by neufer » Tue Feb 25, 2020 9:23 pm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerberus_Fossae wrote:
<<The Cerberus Fossae are a series of semi-parallel fissures on Mars formed by faults which pulled the crust apart in the Cerberus region. The Cerberus Fossae area has been positively identified as the first tectonically active region on Mars, with marsquakes being geolocated there by seismometer measurements from the NASA InSight lander in 2019; this activity was previously suspected on the basis of the trails of dislodged boulders.

Cerberus is a large "dark spot" (an albedo feature) located on Mars and named after the mythical dog Cerberus. The arcuate markings in the upper right are in the Amazonis plains and may be sand drifts. The volcano Elysium Mons, a yellow area north of Cerberus, has several channels radiating from its flanks. The three bright spots, upper left, are volcanoes partially veiled by thin clouds. Images showing no large craters with diameters 500 m superimposed on western Cerberus plains lavas indicate the same surface is younger than 49 Ma. >>
https://harrypotter.fandom.com/wiki/Fluffy wrote:
<<The Cerberus Fluffy was a gigantic, monstrous male three-headed dog who was once cared for by Rubeus Hagrid. Fluffy's greatest weakness was the inability to resist falling asleep to the sound of music. Rubeus Hagrid originally purchased Fluffy from a "Greek chappie" at The Leaky Cauldron. Hagrid loaned Fluffy to the headmaster, Albus Dumbledore, to aid in guarding the Philosopher's Stone, during the 1991–1992 school year. In addition, as further insurance against intruders, the door leading to the room Fluffy was in was locked magically.>>
Art Neuendorffer