Planet Nine from Outer Space

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Michigan: In Search of the Ninth Planet

Post by bystander » Tue Oct 17, 2017 7:20 pm

In Search of the Ninth Planet
University of Michigan | 2017 Oct 17
A University of Michigan doctoral student has logged two pieces of evidence that may support the existence of a planet that could be part of our solar system, beyond Neptune.

Some astronomers think this alleged planet, called Planet Nine, exists because of the way some objects in space, called "Trans-Neptunian Objects," or TNOs, behave. These TNOs are rocky objects smaller than Pluto that orbit the sun at a greater average distance than Neptune. But the orbits of the most distant of these TNOs—those whose average distance from the sun is more than 250 times as far as Earth's distance—seem to point in the same direction. This observation first led astronomers to predict the existence of Planet Nine.

For these TNOs to be aligned in the orbits they currently occupy because of Planet Nine's influence, astronomers say, they would have been in the solar system for longer than a billion years. However, some astronomers think in that amount of time, some of these objects should have either smashed into another planet, been thrown into the sun, or ricocheted off into space by other planets' gravitational force.

The U-M research, led by Juliette Becker, a graduate student in the Department of Astronomy, consisted of a large set of computer simulations, which uncovered two findings about these TNOs. First, the researchers established a version of Planet Nine that would most likely cause our solar system to look the way it currently does, by preventing the TNOs from being destroyed or thrown out of the solar system. Second, the simulations predict that there is a process that they call "resonance hopping" by which a TNO jumps between stable orbits. This process can prevent the TNOs from being ejected from the solar system. ...

Evaluating the Dynamical Stability of Outer Solar System Objects in the Presence of Planet Nine - Juliette C. Becker et al
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Carnegie: Extremely Distant Solar System Object Found

Post by bystander » Wed Oct 03, 2018 3:03 pm

Extremely Distant Solar System Object Found During Hunt for Planet X
Carnegie Institution for Science | 2018 Oct 02
Carnegie’s Scott Sheppard and his colleagues—Northern Arizona University’s Chad Trujillo, and the University of Hawaii’s David Tholen—are once again redefining our Solar System’s edge. They discovered a new extremely distant object far beyond Pluto with an orbit that supports the presence of an even-farther-out, Super-Earth or larger Planet X.

The newly found object, called 2015 TG387, was announced Tuesday by the International Astronomical Union’s Minor Planet Center. ... 2015 TG387 was discovered about 80 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, a measurement defined as the distance between the Earth and Sun. For context, Pluto is around 34 AU, so 2015 TG387 is about two and a half times further away from the Sun than Pluto is right now.

The new object is on a very elongated orbit and never comes closer to the Sun, a point called perihelion, than about 65 AU. Only 2012 VP113 and Sedna at 80 and 76 AU respectively have more-distant perihelia than 2015 TG387. Though 2015 TG387 has the third-most-distant perihelion, its orbital semi-major axis is larger than 2012 VP113 and Sedna’s, meaning it travels much farther from the Sun than they do. At its furthest point, it reaches all the way out to about 2,300 AU. 2015 TG387 is one of the few known objects that never comes close enough to the Solar System’s giant planets, like Neptune and Jupiter, to have significant gravitational interactions with them. ...

A New High Perihelion Inner Oort Cloud Object ~ Scott Sheppard et al
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Carnegie: Most Distant Solar System Object Ever Observed

Post by bystander » Mon Dec 17, 2018 7:04 pm

Discovered: The Most Distant Solar System Object Ever Observed
Carnegie Institution for Science | 2018 Dec 17
A team of astronomers has discovered the most-distant body ever observed in our Solar System. It is the first known Solar System object that has been detected at a distance that is more than 100 times farther than Earth is from the Sun.

The new object was announced on Monday, December 17, 2018, by the International Astronomical Union’s Minor Planet Center and has been given the provisional designation 2018 VG18. The discovery was made by Carnegie’s Scott S. Sheppard, the University of Hawaii’s David Tholen, and Northern Arizona University’s Chad Trujillo.

2018 VG18, nicknamed “Farout” by the discovery team for its extremely distant location, is at about 120 astronomical units (AU), where 1 AU is defined as the distance between the Earth and the Sun. The second-most-distant observed Solar System object is Eris, at about 96 AU. Pluto is currently at about 34 AU, making 2018 VG18 more than three-and-a-half times more distant than the Solar System’s most-famous dwarf planet.
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Farout on the heliosphere BUBBLE!

Post by neufer » Tue Dec 18, 2018 12:36 am

bystander wrote:
Mon Dec 17, 2018 7:04 pm
Discovered: The Most Distant Solar System Object Ever Observed
Carnegie Institution for Science | 2018 Dec 17
2018 VG18, nicknamed “Farout” by the discovery team for its extremely distant location, is at about 120 astronomical units (AU), where 1 AU is defined as the distance between the Earth and the Sun. The second-most-distant observed Solar System object is Eris, at about 96 AU. Pluto is currently at about 34 AU, making 2018 VG18 more than three-and-a-half times more distant than the Solar System’s most-famous dwarf planet.



120 AU places Farout
on the heliosphere BUBBLE :!:

:arrow: Discovery images of 2018 VG18 “Farout” from the Subaru Telescope on November 10, 2018. Farout appears to move [thanks to Earth's own movement] between the two discovery images while the background stars and galaxies do not move over the 1 hour between images.

Credit: Scott S. Sheppard/David Tholen.
Art Neuendorffer

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Cambridge: Mystery Outer Solar System Orbits Not Caused by 'Planet Nine'

Post by bystander » Mon Jan 21, 2019 4:24 pm

Mystery Orbits in Outermost Reaches of Solar System Not Caused by 'Planet Nine'
University of Cambridge | 2019 Jan 20

The strange orbits of some objects in the farthest reaches of our solar system, hypothesised by some astronomers to be shaped by an unknown ninth planet, can instead be explained by the combined gravitational force of small objects orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune, say researchers.

The alternative explanation to the so-called ‘Planet Nine’ hypothesis, put forward by researchers at the University of Cambridge and the American University of Beirut, proposes a disc made up of small icy bodies with a combined mass as much as ten times that of Earth. When combined with a simplified model of the solar system, the gravitational forces of the hypothesised disc can account for the unusual orbital architecture exhibited by some objects at the outer reaches of the solar system.

While the new theory is not the first to propose that the gravitational forces of a massive disc made of small objects could avoid the need for a ninth planet, it is the first such theory which is able to explain the significant features of the observed orbits while accounting for the mass and gravity of the other eight planets in our solar system. ...

Beyond the orbit of Neptune lies the Kuiper Belt, which is made up of small bodies left over from the formation of the solar system. Neptune and the other giant planets gravitationally influence the objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond, collectively known as trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), which encircle the Sun on nearly-circular paths from almost all directions.

However, astronomers have discovered some mysterious outliers. Since 2003, around 30 TNOs on highly elliptical orbits have been spotted: they stand out from the rest of the TNOs by sharing, on average, the same spatial orientation. This type of clustering cannot be explained by our existing eight-planet solar system architecture and has led to some astronomers hypothesising that the unusual orbits could be influenced by the existence of an as-yet-unknown ninth planet. ...

Shepherding in a Self-Gravitating Disk of Trans-Neptunian Objects ~ Antranik A. Sefilian, Jihad R. Touma
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Michigan: Astronomers Optimistic about Planet Nine's Existence

Post by bystander » Wed Feb 27, 2019 6:38 pm

Planet Nine: Astronomers Optimistic about Its Existence, Hope to See More Evidence Soon
University of Michigan | 2019 Feb 27
Seeing is believing, but when it comes to Planet Nine, complex calculations of space objects’ behavior, careful observation of orbital anomalies, and watchful observation of the region beyond Neptune will have to do for now.

“The strongest argument in favor of Planet Nine is that independent lines of evidence can all be explained by a proposed new planet with the same properties. In other words, there are multiple reasons to believe that Planet Nine is real, not just one,” said Fred Adams, the Ta-You Wu Collegiate Professor of Physics (and Astronomy) at the University of Michigan.

Three years ago, astronomers Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown of Caltech hypothesized about the existence of a ninth planet in the solar system, beyond Neptune, that would explain why some objects in space, called “Trans-Neptunian Objects,” or TNOs, behave as they do.

Since then, astronomers have been busy gathering evidence of its existence. Batygin, Brown and Adams, along with doctoral candidate Juliette Becker from U-M’s Department of Astronomy, recently reviewed this evidence in the article “The Planet Nine Hypothesis,” published this month by Physics Reports.

“Although this analysis does not say anything directly about whether Planet Nine is there, it does indicate that the hypothesis rests upon a solid foundation,” said co-author Mike Brown, the Richard and Barbara Rosenberg Professor of Planetary Astronomy at Caltech.

Adams said he’s optimistic that in the next 10 to 15 years we’ll either be able to observe Planet Nine or have enough data to rule it out. In the last two decades, the number of discoveries of both new solar system objects and extrasolar planets have increased exponentially. For example, the four authors of the report have collectively co-discovered dozens of such objects and the rate of detections is well-positioned to increase. ...

The Planet Nine Hypothesis ~ Konstantin Batygin et al
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