LPP Fusion | via Science Daily | 2020 Jan 09
A bedrock prediction of the Big Bang theory has been contradicted by abundant observations, according to a new study ..., deepening the already widely discussed crisis in cosmology. The study, by Eric J. Lerner ... looks at the origin and abundance of three key light elements that are hypothesized to have been created by the Big Bang. Precise amounts of helium, deuterium and lithium are predicted to have been formed by fusion reactions in the dense, extremely hot initial instants of the Big Bang. In the study ... these predictions are compared with decades of increasingly exact observations.
For both lithium and helium, the study shows, observations of abundances in old stars now differ from predictions by more than a dozen standard deviations, and the gap has been widening at an accelerating pace. The oldest stars have less than half the helium and less than one tenth the lithium than that predicted by Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory. The lowest lithium levels observed are less than 1% that predicted by the theory. Indeed, the evidence is consistent with no helium or lithium having been formed before the first stars in our galaxy.
Equally important, the study shows that the right amounts of these light elements have been predicted by an alternative explanation, which hypothesizes that these elements were produced by stars in the earliest stages of the evolution of galaxies. This alternative explanation, which Lerner calls the Galactic Origin of Light Elements or GOLE hypothesis, derives from theoretical expectations that the first generation of stars to form in a galaxy are intermediate-mass stars that are from 4 to 12 times as massive as the Sun. These stars burn hydrogen to helium in tens to a couple of hundred million years, much faster than our Sun’s burn rate of ten billion years. The helium then disperses in powerful stellar winds during the late stages of these stars’ lifetimes. Cosmic rays from these early stars, colliding at high energy with other nuclei, produce deuterium and lithium. ...