NASA news conference about exoplanet (TRAPPIST-1)

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NASA news conference about exoplanet (TRAPPIST-1)

Postby Doum » Tue Feb 21, 2017 2:35 pm

NASA will hold a news conference at 10 a.m. PST (1 p.m. EST) Wednesday, Feb. 22, to present new findings on planets that orbit stars other than our sun, known as exoplanets. The event will air live on NASA Television and the agency's website.


http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/NASA_ ... m_999.html

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby bystander » Tue Feb 21, 2017 3:44 pm

NASA to Host News Conference on Discovery Beyond Our Solar System
https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa ... lar-system
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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby geckzilla » Wed Feb 22, 2017 2:11 am

Someone broke the embargo and spilled the beans. All seven Earth-sized beans.
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ESO: Ultracool Dwarf and the Seven Planets

Postby bystander » Wed Feb 22, 2017 7:25 pm

Ultracool Dwarf and the Seven Planets
ESO Science Release | 2017 Feb 22

Astronomers have found a system of seven Earth-sized planets just 40 light-years away. Using ground and space telescopes, including ESO’s Very Large Telescope, the planets were all detected as they passed in front of their parent star, the ultracool dwarf star known as TRAPPIST-1. According to the paper appearing today in the journal Nature, three of the planets lie in the habitable zone and could harbour oceans of water on their surfaces, increasing the possibility that the star system could play host to life. This system has both the largest number of Earth-sized planets yet found and the largest number of worlds that could support liquid water on their surfaces.

Astronomers using the TRAPPIST–South telescope at ESO’s La Silla Observatory, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal and the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, as well as other telescopes around the world [1], have now confirmed the existence of at least seven small planets orbiting the cool red dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 [2]. All the planets, labelled TRAPPIST-1b, c, d, e, f, g and h in order of increasing distance from their parent star, have sizes similar to Earth [3].

Dips in the star’s light output caused by each of the seven planets passing in front of it — events known as transits — allowed the astronomers to infer information about their sizes, compositions and orbits [4]. They found that at least the inner six planets are comparable in both size and temperature to the Earth. ...

With just 8% the mass of the Sun, TRAPPIST-1 is very small in stellar terms — only marginally bigger than the planet Jupiter — and though nearby in the constellation Aquarius (The Water Carrier), it appears very dim. Astronomers expected that such dwarf stars might host many Earth-sized planets in tight orbits, making them promising targets in the hunt for extraterrestrial life, but TRAPPIST-1 is the first such system to be found. ...

The team determined that all the planets in the system are similar in size to Earth and Venus in the Solar System, or slightly smaller. The density measurements suggest that at least the innermost six are probably rocky in composition.

The planetary orbits are not much larger than that of Jupiter’s Galilean moon system, and much smaller than the orbit of Mercury in the Solar System. However, TRAPPIST-1’s small size and low temperature mean that the energy input to its planets is similar to that received by the inner planets in our Solar System; TRAPPIST-1c, d and f receive similar amounts of energy to Venus, Earth and Mars, respectively.

All seven planets discovered in the system could potentially have liquid water on their surfaces, though their orbital distances make some of them more likely candidates than others. Climate models suggest the innermost planets, TRAPPIST-1b, c and d, are probably too hot to support liquid water, except maybe on a small fraction of their surfaces. The orbital distance of the system’s outermost planet, TRAPPIST-1h, is unconfirmed, though it is likely to be too distant and cold to harbour liquid water — assuming no alternative heating processes are occurring [5]. TRAPPIST-1e, f, and g, however, represent the holy grail for planet-hunting astronomers, as they orbit in the star’s habitable zone and could host oceans of surface water [6]. ...

Spitzer Reveals Largest Batch of Earth-Size, Habitable-Zone Planets Around Single Star
NASA | California Institute of Technology | Spitzer | Exoplanets | HubbleSite | 2017 Feb 22

Imagine standing on the surface of the exoplanet TRAPPIST-1f. This artist's concept is one interpretation of what it could look like Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed the first known system of seven Earth-size planets around a single star. Three of these planets are firmly located in the habitable zone, the area around the parent star where a rocky planet is most likely to have liquid water.

The discovery sets a new record for greatest number of habitable-zone planets found around a single star outside our solar system. All of these seven planets could have liquid water–key to life as we know it–under the right atmospheric conditions, but the chances are highest with the three in the habitable zone. ...

At about 40 light-years (235 trillion miles) from Earth, the system of planets is relatively close to us, in the constellation Aquarius. Because they are located outside of our solar system, these planets are scientifically known as exoplanets.

This exoplanet system is called TRAPPIST-1, named for The Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope (TRAPPIST) in Chile. In May 2016, researchers using TRAPPIST announced they had discovered three planets in the system. Assisted by several ground-based telescopes, including the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, Spitzer confirmed the existence of two of these planets and discovered five additional ones, increasing the number of known planets in the system to seven. ...

An Exceptional System of Exoplanets
National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) | 2017 Feb 22

These seven alien worlds could help explain how planets form
Nature News | 2017 Feb 22

Seven temperate terrestrial planets around the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 - Michaël Gillon et al

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby Doum » Wed Feb 22, 2017 8:11 pm

trappist-1 is around 500 million years old. Life on earth did appear when it was 500 million years old. So, using earth as reference because its all we know, there might be very primitive lifeform overthere. Of course life might be more evolve then that. Natural occuring and evolution of life might be different then here on eath. i wouldnt expect detection of a signal coming from there. But who knows? It is still fascinating. WOW!
Last edited by Doum on Thu Feb 23, 2017 1:13 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Spitzer: The Seven Wonders of TRAPPIST-1

Postby bystander » Wed Feb 22, 2017 10:50 pm

The Seven Wonders of TRAPPIST-1
Credit: NASA/Spitzer - Narrator: Sean Carey

Click to play embedded YouTube video.


This video details a system of seven planets orbiting TRAPPIST-1, a discovery of the Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. TRAPPIST-1 is an ultra-cool dwarf star. Over 21 days, Spitzer measured the drop in light as each planet passed in front of the star. Spitzer was able to identify a total of seven rocky worlds, including three in the habitable zone where life is possible. The study established the planets' size, distance from their sun and, for some of them, their approximate mass and density. It also established that some, if not all, these planets are tidally locked, meaning one face of the planet permanently faces their sun.
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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby neufer » Thu Feb 23, 2017 1:11 am


I noticed all the planets seem to be in a 3:2 resonance
with their neighboring planets a la Pluto/Neptune.

Does that mean that their elliptical
    orbits are all set up such that:

    each outer/inner planet is
    near aphelion/perihelion
at inferior conjunction.
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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby BDanielMayfield » Thu Feb 23, 2017 4:49 am

neufer wrote:

I noticed all the planets seem to be in a 3:2 resonance
with their neighboring planets a la Pluto/Neptune.

Does that mean that their elliptical
    orbits are all set up such that:

    each outer/inner planet is
    near aphelion/perihelion
at inferior conjunction.


Good question (and observation). Titus and Bode would have loved this system.

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby BDanielMayfield » Thu Feb 23, 2017 5:22 am

For all exoplanet fans this news is just fantastic! Ultra cool indeed. Trappist-1 is only about 39 light years away, it has just barely enough mass to even be a normal star (which means it will shine on for 10 Trillion years) and its family of 7 planets (so far) all orbit at an almost perfect 90 degrees to our line of sight! What are the odds?

No really, I wonder what the odds of all these factors converging really are, and what this says about the vast numbers of planets that must exist!

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby Ann » Thu Feb 23, 2017 5:59 am

Doum wrote:trappist-1 is around 500 million years old. Life on earth did appear when it was 500 million years old. So, using earth as reference because its all we know, there might be very primitive lifeform overthere. Of course life might be more evolve then that. Natural occuring and evolution of life might be different then here on eath. i wouldnt expect detection of a signal coming from there. But who knows? It is still fascinating. WOW!


Wikipedia wrote:
TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star that is approximately 8% the mass of and 11% the radius of the Sun. It has a temperature of 2550 K and is at least 500 million years old[4], though it could theoretically be billions, or even hundreds of billions[17], of years old.


TRAPPIST-1 is at least 500 million years old, and it could be much older.

TRAPPIST-1 is somewhat similar to Proxima Centauri when it comes to mass and luminosity, although it is even fainter and smaller than Proxima.

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby neufer » Thu Feb 23, 2017 6:02 am

Click to play embedded YouTube video.
BDanielMayfield wrote:
Trappist-1 is only about 39 light years away, it has just barely enough mass to even be a normal star (which means it will shine on for 10 Trillion years) and its family of 7 planets (so far) all orbit at an almost perfect 90 degrees to our line of sight! What are the odds? No really, I wonder what the odds of all these factors converging really are, and what this says about the vast numbers of planets that must exist!

    About 0.8% for the most distant of the planets.
Last edited by neufer on Thu Feb 23, 2017 2:03 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby BDanielMayfield » Thu Feb 23, 2017 6:50 am

neufer wrote:
BDanielMayfield wrote:
Trappist-1 is only about 39 light years away, it has just barely enough mass to even be a normal star (which means it will shine on for 10 Trillion years) and its family of 7 planets (so far) all orbit at an almost perfect 90 degrees to our line of sight! What are the odds? No really, I wonder what the odds of all these factors converging really are, and what this says about the vast numbers of planets that must exist!

    About 0.8% for the most distant of the planets.

Yes, the further out an exoplanet orbits, the less likely it will transit as seen from earth. Plus a short observing run can easily miss planets even if they do transit. This entire 7 planet system would fit way, way inside Mercury's orbit (as shown by one of the above graphics bystander posted.) My point is that there could be many more planets than just these 7 very close in orbiters in this system. There's an enormous amount of unexplored space as it were further out from this star.

This find is telling us that it should be quite common for the most numerous class of stars to have large numbers of planets.

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby Ann » Thu Feb 23, 2017 7:16 am

I must agree that the TRAPPIST-1 system is amazing. Imagine a star only 8% the mass of the Sun whose accretion disk also produced no fewer than seven planets that are comparable to the Earth in size and mass!

I read somewhere that metal-poor stars have been born out of nebulas that were able to produce rocky planets like the Earth, but no or few gas giants. The TRAPPIST-1 metal-rich nebula produced no fewer than seven "Earths", but not a single Jupiter or Neptune!

In a way, the TRAPPIST-1 system reminds me of Saturn and its enormous entourage of moons. Of course, only one of the Saturnian moons is even remotely Earthlike, and that is Titan. TRAPPIST-1 has seven planets more massive than Titan, but TRAPPIST-1 itself is also more massive than Saturn.

My horrible math suggests to me that Saturn is about 0.00034 the mass of the Sun, whereas TRAPPIST-1 (the star) is 0.08 the mass of the Sun. That would make TRAPPIST-1 a bit more than 200 times as massive as Saturn, not an enormous difference. To me, TRAPPIST-1 resembles a scaled-up version of the Saturnian system.

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby BDanielMayfield » Thu Feb 23, 2017 8:31 am

Ann wrote:I must agree that the TRAPPIST-1 system is amazing. Imagine a star only 8% the mass of the Sun whose accretion disk also produced no fewer than seven planets that are comparable to the Earth in size and mass!

I read somewhere that metal-poor stars have been born out of nebulas that were able to produce rocky planets like the Earth, but no or few gas giants. The TRAPPIST-1 metal-rich nebula produced no fewer than seven "Earths", but not a single Jupiter or Neptune! ...

The nebula TRAPPIST-1 and company formed from was metal rich? Where'd ya hear that? Wikipedia lists the star's metallicity at just 0.04+/-0.08 dex. Very Sunlike.

Try comparing this system to Jupiter and you'll find a closer match Ann. Anyway, what's nice to see is the scale up factor between our gas giants with their moons and TRAPPIST-1 with its planets. If this is found to be a common trend then there could be many Earth sized moons around super Jupiters and BDs. And these comparisons between our gas giants and this tiny RD also would suggest that RDs in general could have great numbers of planets.

Happy times for exoplanet lovers everywhere. :D

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby Ann » Thu Feb 23, 2017 9:31 am

BDanielMayfield wrote:
Ann wrote:I must agree that the TRAPPIST-1 system is amazing. Imagine a star only 8% the mass of the Sun whose accretion disk also produced no fewer than seven planets that are comparable to the Earth in size and mass!

I read somewhere that metal-poor stars have been born out of nebulas that were able to produce rocky planets like the Earth, but no or few gas giants. The TRAPPIST-1 metal-rich nebula produced no fewer than seven "Earths", but not a single Jupiter or Neptune! ...

The nebula TRAPPIST-1 and company formed from was metal rich? Where'd ya hear that? Wikipedia lists the star's metallicity at just 0.04+/-0.08 dex. Very Sunlike.

Wikipedia wrote:
The star is metal-rich, with a metallicity ([Fe/H]) of 0.04, or 109% the solar amount. This is particularly odd as such low-mass stars near the boundary between brown dwarfs and hydrogen-fusing stars are expected to have considerably less metallic composition than the Sun.

Hey, I'm just quoting Wikipedia. :wink:

By the way, you were right when you said that the TRAPPIST-1 system is more like Jupiter and its moons than Saturn and its moons.

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby Doum » Thu Feb 23, 2017 3:54 pm

Ann wrote:
Doum wrote:trappist-1 is around 500 million years old. Life on earth did appear when it was 500 million years old. So, using earth as reference because its all we know, there might be very primitive lifeform overthere. Of course life might be more evolve then that. Natural occuring and evolution of life might be different then here on eath. i wouldnt expect detection of a signal coming from there. But who knows? It is still fascinating. WOW!

Wikipedia wrote:
TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star that is approximately 8% the mass of and 11% the radius of the Sun. It has a temperature of 2550 K and is at least 500 million years old[4], though it could theoretically be billions, or even hundreds of billions[17], of years old.

TRAPPIST-1 is at least 500 million years old, and it could be much older.

TRAPPIST-1 is somewhat similar to Proxima Centauri when it comes to mass and luminosity, although it is even fainter and smaller than Proxima.

Ann

if it is billion years old or more then it change everything. Now that trappist-1 have attract our attention, his real age might be determine more precisely. Its a solar system that scientist will orbit around to study a lot. Im eager to see new publication about it.

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby Doum » Thu Feb 23, 2017 4:05 pm

Here is a link for the habitability of a red dwarf solar system planets.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habitabil ... rf_systems

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby BDanielMayfield » Thu Feb 23, 2017 4:22 pm

Ann wrote:
BDanielMayfield wrote:
Ann wrote:I must agree that the TRAPPIST-1 system is amazing. Imagine a star only 8% the mass of the Sun whose accretion disk also produced no fewer than seven planets that are comparable to the Earth in size and mass!

I read somewhere that metal-poor stars have been born out of nebulas that were able to produce rocky planets like the Earth, but no or few gas giants. The TRAPPIST-1 metal-rich nebula produced no fewer than seven "Earths", but not a single Jupiter or Neptune! ...

The nebula TRAPPIST-1 and company formed from was metal rich? Where'd ya hear that? Wikipedia lists the star's metallicity at just 0.04+/-0.08 dex. Very Sunlike.

Wikipedia wrote:
The star is metal-rich, with a metallicity ([Fe/H]) of 0.04, or 109% the solar amount. This is particularly odd as such low-mass stars near the boundary between brown dwarfs and hydrogen-fusing stars are expected to have considerably less metallic composition than the Sun.

Hey, I'm just quoting Wikipedia. :wink


Ah so Ann. I just pulled the dex figure I used from that same article's stellar data table. Note that the error range takes this from -0.04 to 0.12 dex. In more understandable terms that's 91 to 132% of solar, averaged to 109%. Are they saying that the Sun is a metal rich star?

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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby bystander » Thu Feb 23, 2017 4:35 pm

BDanielMayfield wrote:...
Are they saying that the Sun is a metal rich star?

The Sun and TRAPPIST-1 are both Population I stars. By definition, they are considered to be metal-rich. You have to remember this is in comparison to Pop II and Pop III stars.
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Re: NASA news conference about exoplanet

Postby BDanielMayfield » Thu Feb 23, 2017 4:41 pm

Doum wrote:
if it is billion years old or more then it change everything. Now that trappist-1 have attract our attention, his real age might be determine more precisely. Its a solar system that scientist will orbit around to study a lot. Im eager to see new publication about it.

Yes, the true current age of this system is critical.

Earlier in this thread I stated a 10 trillion year lifetime for this star, just getting that from some anonymous poster on another site. The Wikipedia article gives a 4-5 trillion year estimate. That still gives this system about 1,000 times more time than our star.

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Earth-sized planets: The newest, weirdest generation

Postby bystander » Fri Feb 24, 2017 5:18 am

Earth-sized planets: The newest, weirdest generation
NASA | Exoplanet Exploration Program | 2017 Feb 22
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Kepler Provides Another Peek at Ultra-cool Neighbor

Postby bystander » Wed Mar 08, 2017 4:33 pm

Kepler Provides Another Peek at Ultra-cool Neighbor
NASA | JPL-Caltech | Ames Research Center | Kepler K2 | 2017 Mar 08

On Feb. 22, astronomers announced that the ultra-cool dwarf star, TRAPPIST-1, hosts a total of seven Earth-size planets that are likely rocky, a discovery made by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope in combination with ground-based telescopes. NASA's planet-hunting Kepler space telescope also has been observing this star since December 2016. Today these additional data about TRAPPIST-1 from Kepler are available to the scientific community.

During the period of Dec. 15, 2016 to March 4, the Kepler spacecraft, operating as the K2 mission, collected data on the star's minuscule changes in brightness due to transiting planets. These additional observations are expected to allow astronomers to refine the previous measurements of six planets, pin down the orbital period and mass of the seventh and farthest planet, TRAPPIST-1h, and learn more about the magnetic activity of the host star. ...

The release of the raw, uncalibrated data collected will aid astronomers in preparing proposals due this month to use telescopes on Earth next winter to further investigate TRAPPIST-1. By late May, the routine processing of the data will be completed and the fully calibrated data will be made available at the public archive. ...

MAST K2 - Trappist-1
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