I have a theory about the meaning of the star and its rays of light which may help to decode the strange language.
My background: I'm a twenty-two year old programmer, writer, musician, and philosopher. I'm attending college in Oklahoma to get my Bachelor's degree in Computer Science.
I'm no expert of Astronomy, but I appreciate cryptography of all sorts.
My proposition: The star is a decryption key.
If you count the blue and red and white rays, there are twelve of each. I think these tell the reader the position of the Earth around the sun (the months of the year). If you look further out past the rays there are nine columns of two stars and three columns of single stars. Between these columns are the names of months, with the thirteenth column being the word for the new year. Those three single stars might be where the new year begins (before or after), and from that reference point, you could decode the names of the months written in the strange language. This is just my speculation after a few minutes of analysis, but it seems to be correct. I don't have the knowledge required to decode this language, but there are probably clues in the style of writing, the origin of the document (where it may have came from), et cetera.
If you feel like collaborating with me, you can message me: firstname.lastname@example.org