Great image, of stars and a part of the Milky Way I would not see from my home.
As an "armchair" astronomy buff, who does not have equipment and does not do such imaging, I am slowly improving in my intuitions with images such as this one. I understand that it can take considerable time for a scope or camera to gather the light to bring out an image of the sky such as this. And I don't know if there is any particular relation between the image taken of the foreground and the images of the sky features. The astrophotographer may simply choose a different amount of exposure for the foreground shot, I suppose. But it is interesting to develop some intuition about it to help in viewing such images. I did notice the foreground areas of light and shadow and guessed that this was mainly moonlight and one could determine the moon's location from the shadows. I don't know what the ground would have looked like on a dark-sky moonless night from a long exposure.
It would be nice if we could somehow teach our eyes and brains to do this. They do adjust some, and some animals are very good at night vision, but I mean if we could sit still and actually integrate like the camera does.
This is a basic technique for astronomy. I wonder are there any special applications for long exposures when imaging things on Earth?
I did google-search "long exposure photography" and got a site that (along with lots of ads, yuck) showed some fun images, though no particular applications of the technique, other than beautiful/fun images. I suppose all of the images in some sense reveal something that may not be noticed with a short exposure. https://digital-photography-school.com/long-exposure-photography/
The Wikipedia article on Long Exposure Photography https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-exposure_photography
also has some interesting examples. But I'm wondering if there are any scientific or industrial usages. The one image of insect flights in the Wikipedia article might be such a use. One can probably compute and compare speeds and other features.
Aha. Electrophoresis could be viewed as a form of long-exposure photography, and has lots of applications.