APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

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APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by APOD Robot » Fri Feb 07, 2020 5:05 am

Image NGC 7331 Close Up

Explanation: Big, beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 7331 is often touted as an analog to our own Milky Way. About 50 million light-years distant in the northern constellation Pegasus, NGC 7331 was recognized early on as a spiral nebula and is actually one of the brighter galaxies not included in Charles Messier's famous 18th century catalog. Since the galaxy's disk is inclined to our line-of-sight, long telescopic exposures often result in an image that evokes a strong sense of depth. In this Hubble Space Telescope close-up, the galaxy's magnificent spiral arms feature dark obscuring dust lanes, bright bluish clusters of massive young stars, and the telltale reddish glow of active star forming regions. The bright yellowish central regions harbor populations of older, cooler stars. Like the Milky Way, a supermassive black hole lies at the core of spiral galaxy NGC 7331.

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by neufer » Fri Feb 07, 2020 5:43 am

Click to play embedded YouTube video.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_7331 wrote:
<<In spiral galaxies the central bulge typically co-rotates with the disk but the bulge in the galaxy NGC 7331 is rotating in the opposite direction to the rest of the disk.>>

https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9602142
Last edited by neufer on Fri Feb 07, 2020 6:17 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by Ann » Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:39 am

Angry cat.png


Interesting combination of physics and cat torture there, Art. Particularly when the cat landed on the hard ground.










On a different note, today's APOD is both beautiful and interesting, and it doesn't look brand new to me. Why not? Well, because its colors are so nice and a lot of filters must have been used to produce it!

NGC 7331. ESA/Hubble & NASA/D. Milisavljevic.

The image that is today's APOD was released slightly more than two years ago, on January 29, 2018. I strongly applaud all the filters that were used for the image. The ESA/Hubble page where this image was originally released lists no fewer than six filters that were used for this image, two ultraviolet ones, one blue, one yellow-green, one near infrared and one for Hα and NIII. As a result, we get a splendid image that does a superb job at detecting various stellar populations in NGC 7331.

(A more filter-economic example of a Hubble picture of a galaxy is this one, of galaxy NGC 2985, for which only two filters were used. In the case of NGC 2985, the two filters were Hα and near infrared.)


NGC 7331 and the Deer Lick Group.
Vicent Peris (OAUV / PTeam), Gilles Bergond, Calar Alto Observatory.






My favorite portrait of NGC 7331 (and the Deer Lick Group of background galaxies) is the one at right, however. With my peculiar sense of aesthetics, I do find the colors very beautiful.
David Galadí-Enríquez wrote about Vicent Peris picture:
Color is, also, a very important side of this photograph. The chromatic balance has been obtained assuming that all the light coming from the main galaxy, as a whole, is white. This reference allows to distinguish which parts of NGC 7331 are bluer or redder. This also makes possible to compare the hue of the main galaxy with that of its smaller neighbors and background objects.
So the colors of the Vicent Peris picture are "relative" compared to a "white standard". The colors emanating from various parts of the galaxy are either bluer or redder than the total light of the galaxy.

NGC 7337 of the Deer Lick Group.
Vicent Peris (OAUV / PTeam), Gilles Bergond, Calar Alto Observatory.
I highly recommend this page, which discusses details of the Vicent Peris picture of NGC 7331. Among other things, you can see two closeups of galaxies in the Deer Lick Group, of which the one at left is the most stunning. At least I think so.

Ann
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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by SpaceCadet » Fri Feb 07, 2020 8:47 am

Ann wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:39 am
Angry cat.png


Interesting combination of physics and cat torture there, Art. Particularly when the cat landed on the hard ground.










On a different note, today's APOD is both beautiful and interesting, and it doesn't look brand new to me. Why not? Well, because its colors are so nice and a lot of filters must have been used to produce it!

NGC 7331. ESA/Hubble & NASA/D. Milisavljevic.

The image that is today's APOD was released slightly more than two years ago, on January 29, 2018. I strongly applaud all the filters that were used for the image. The ESA/Hubble page where this image was originally released lists no fewer than six filters that were used for this image, two ultraviolet ones, one blue, one yellow-green, one near infrared and one for Hα and NIII. As a result, we get a splendid image that does a superb job at detecting various stellar populations in NGC 7331.

(A more filter-economic example of a Hubble picture of a galaxy is this one, of galaxy NGC 2985, for which only two filters were used. In the case of NGC 2985, the two filters were Hα and near infrared.)


NGC 7331 and the Deer Lick Group.
Vicent Peris (OAUV / PTeam), Gilles Bergond, Calar Alto Observatory.






My favorite portrait of NGC 7331 (and the Deer Lick Group of background galaxies) is the one at right, however. With my peculiar sense of aesthetics, I do find the colors very beautiful.
David Galadí-Enríquez wrote about Vicent Peris picture:
Color is, also, a very important side of this photograph. The chromatic balance has been obtained assuming that all the light coming from the main galaxy, as a whole, is white. This reference allows to distinguish which parts of NGC 7331 are bluer or redder. This also makes possible to compare the hue of the main galaxy with that of its smaller neighbors and background objects.
So the colors of the Vicent Peris picture are "relative" compared to a "white standard". The colors emanating from various parts of the galaxy are either bluer or redder than the total light of the galaxy.

NGC 7337 of the Deer Lick Group.
Vicent Peris (OAUV / PTeam), Gilles Bergond, Calar Alto Observatory.
I highly recommend this page, which discusses details of the Vicent Peris picture of NGC 7331. Among other things, you can see two closeups of galaxies in the Deer Lick Group, of which the one at left is the most stunning. At least I think so.

Ann
Thank you for sharing all of this information!

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by Boomer12k » Fri Feb 07, 2020 10:52 am

Amazing close up... really seems active... but hard to see much else...

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by orin stepanek » Fri Feb 07, 2020 11:35 am

I like all the very crisp detail that Hubble brought out! 8-)
Orin

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by Alex_515 » Fri Feb 07, 2020 11:46 am

It's always fascinating to relate the sense of depth given in such a spectacular image with the fact that relativistic phenomena are to be taken into account when viewing the image.

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by TheOtherBruce » Fri Feb 07, 2020 1:25 pm

Ann wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:39 am
NGC 7331 and the Deer Lick Group.
Vicent Peris (OAUV / PTeam), Gilles Bergond, Calar Alto Observatory.






My favorite portrait of NGC 7331 (and the Deer Lick Group of background galaxies) is the one at right, however. With my peculiar sense of aesthetics, I do find the colors very beautiful.
Does anyone else see the inner gas and dust clouds tilted at an angle to the outer spiral arms, or is it some sort of perspective effect? I think I can see the same thing in today's main picture.
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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by neufer » Fri Feb 07, 2020 1:40 pm

Click to play embedded YouTube video.
Ann wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:39 am

Interesting combination of physics and cat torture there, Art.

Particularly when the cat landed on the hard ground.
Art Neuendorffer

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by Chris Peterson » Fri Feb 07, 2020 2:20 pm

Alex_515 wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 11:46 am
It's always fascinating to relate the sense of depth given in such a spectacular image with the fact that relativistic phenomena are to be taken into account when viewing the image.
What "relativistic phenomena" must be taken into account? How would this image appear any different in a non-relativistic universe?
Chris

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by Ann » Fri Feb 07, 2020 4:03 pm

TheOtherBruce wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 1:25 pm
Ann wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:39 am
NGC 7331 and the Deer Lick Group.
Vicent Peris (OAUV / PTeam), Gilles Bergond, Calar Alto Observatory.






My favorite portrait of NGC 7331 (and the Deer Lick Group of background galaxies) is the one at right, however. With my peculiar sense of aesthetics, I do find the colors very beautiful.
Does anyone else see the inner gas and dust clouds tilted at an angle to the outer spiral arms, or is it some sort of perspective effect? I think I can see the same thing in today's main picture.
You are right. We are actually seeing the "ends" of a few spiral arms.

Highly inclined galaxy NGC 7331 with arms "ending" near bottom.
Vicent Peris (OAUV / PTeam), Gilles Bergond, Calar Alto Observatory.
Nearly face on galaxy NGC 6946 with arms "ending" at top.
Photo: Robert Gendler/ Subaru Telescope.


























Ann
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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by DL MARTIN » Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:51 pm

I'm still having trouble in seeing the scientific relevance of analyzing this galaxy without the qualifier that what is being examined took place 50 million years ago. Is astronomy an activity that advances looking backwards? If so, then let's be honest about it.

Alex_515

Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by Alex_515 » Fri Feb 07, 2020 9:18 pm

Chris Peterson wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 2:20 pm
Alex_515 wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 11:46 am
It's always fascinating to relate the sense of depth given in such a spectacular image with the fact that relativistic phenomena are to be taken into account when viewing the image.
What "relativistic phenomena" must be taken into account? How would this image appear any different in a non-relativistic universe?
On a picture of a galaxy like this one, side-viewed, antipodal objects on the external disk's boundary represent events separated by a huge amount of time wrt to the viewer, even though the time interval may be negligible according to the galaxy dynamics' timescale. This is not the case when the galaxy is face on. This is what I meant, please correct me if I'm wrong. I find it amazing.

Alex

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by BDanielMayfield » Sat Feb 08, 2020 12:10 am

DL MARTIN wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:51 pm
I'm still having trouble in seeing the scientific relevance of analyzing this galaxy without the qualifier that what is being examined took place 50 million years ago. Is astronomy an activity that advances looking backwards? If so, then let's be honest about it.
Astronomical objects are always studied with distance being one of the key factors involved in the analysis of the data. Also, in these general educational discussions in APOD distance in light-years is always reported for very distant objects.

And yes, astronomy very much is a science that advances by looking backwards in time, even into billions of years. This fact isn't being hidden, it's being celebrated!
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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by Chris Peterson » Sat Feb 08, 2020 12:15 am

Alex_515 wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 9:18 pm
Chris Peterson wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 2:20 pm
Alex_515 wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 11:46 am
It's always fascinating to relate the sense of depth given in such a spectacular image with the fact that relativistic phenomena are to be taken into account when viewing the image.
What "relativistic phenomena" must be taken into account? How would this image appear any different in a non-relativistic universe?
On a picture of a galaxy like this one, side-viewed, antipodal objects on the external disk's boundary represent events separated by a huge amount of time wrt to the viewer, even though the time interval may be negligible according to the galaxy dynamics' timescale. This is not the case when the galaxy is face on. This is what I meant, please correct me if I'm wrong. I find it amazing.
It is precisely because the time difference is tiny compared with the galaxy dynamics that the finite speed of light (which isn't the same as a relativistic phenomenon) doesn't matter. If light traveled infinitely fast, we'd see essentially no difference in this image, except for having rotated perhaps a quarter of the way further around its axis (which wouldn't make it look much different).
Chris

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by Chris Peterson » Sat Feb 08, 2020 12:17 am

DL MARTIN wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:51 pm
I'm still having trouble in seeing the scientific relevance of analyzing this galaxy without the qualifier that what is being examined took place 50 million years ago. Is astronomy an activity that advances looking backwards? If so, then let's be honest about it.
Until you're able to explain why you're having this trouble (which no astronomer has), I guess nobody is going to be able to help you. It's been explained to you many times why it's irrelevant.
Chris

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Re: APOD: NGC 7331 Close Up (2020 Feb 07)

Post by neufer » Sat Feb 08, 2020 4:55 am

Alex_515 wrote:
Fri Feb 07, 2020 9:18 pm

On a picture of a galaxy like this one, side-viewed, antipodal objects on the external disk's boundary represent events separated by a huge amount of time wrt to the viewer, even though the time interval may be negligible according to the galaxy dynamics' timescale. This is not the case when the galaxy is face on. This is what I meant, please correct me if I'm wrong. I find it amazing.
You are correct that there is a small distortion of the galactic wave structure due to synoptic observational time delay of the (~0.0005 c) galactic arm wave propagation.

:arrow: It means that the most distant parts of NGC 7331 appear to be shifted to the right by at most 0.025% of the full width of the galaxy.

:arrow: Likewise, the nearest parts of NGC 7331 also appear to be shifted to the right by at most 0.025% of the full width of the galaxy.

This small (though not totally negligible) relativistic distortion could be artificially adjusted for (to first order) but it hardly seems worth the effort.
Art Neuendorffer