APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

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APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by APOD Robot » Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:05 am

Image Iron in the Butterfly Nebula

Explanation: Can stars, like caterpillars, transform themselves into butterflies? No, but in the case of the Butterfly Nebula -- it sure looks like it. Though its wingspan covers over 3 light-years and its estimated surface temperature exceeds 200,000 degrees, C, the dying central star of NGC 6302, the featured planetary nebula, has become exceptionally hot, shining brightly in visible and ultraviolet light but hidden from direct view by a dense torus of dust. This sharp close-up was recorded by the Hubble Space Telescope and is reprocessed here to show off the remarkable details of the complex planetary nebula, highlighting in particular light emitted by iron, shown in red. NGC 6302 lies about 4,000 light-years away in the arachnologically correct constellation of the Scorpion (Scorpius). Planetary nebulas evolve from outer atmospheres of stars like our Sun, but usually fade in about 20,000 years.

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LMMdT

Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by LMMdT » Tue Jul 21, 2020 7:26 am

In-a-gadda-da-vida :wink:

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by madtom1999 » Tue Jul 21, 2020 9:06 am

In ad 774 there was a red cross seen in the sky, it is also associated with a tree ring C14 spike that year and the next. When looking at planetary nebulae it is easy to see that they could be interpreted as a cross. I wonder if the 774 event was in fact some form of planetary nebula but on a smaller star giving it a shorter visibility. Could a white dwarf do this if impacted by a large body?

vdix

Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by vdix » Tue Jul 21, 2020 9:23 am

Planetary nebula... a total misnomer, should have been changed long time ago

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by orin stepanek » Tue Jul 21, 2020 10:36 am

Butterfly_HubbleSchmidt_1080.jpg

Probably not as pretty in real life; but pictures like this keep me
hanging around APOD! :D 8-) :clap:
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Orin

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by XgeoX » Tue Jul 21, 2020 11:52 am

Stunning piece of art and science!
This sharp close-up was recorded by the Hubble Space Telescope and is reprocessed here to show off the remarkable details of the complex planetary nebula, highlighting in particular light emitted by iron, shown in red.
I wonder just how much iron is in that nebula...

Eric

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by neufer » Tue Jul 21, 2020 12:13 pm

APOD Robot wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:05 am

Explanation: NGC 6302 lies about 4,000 light-years away in the arachnologically [sic] correct constellation of the Scorpion (Scorpius).
NGC 6302 lies about 4,000 light-years away in the arthropologically correct constellation of the Scorpion (Scorpius)
  • Of all the foot joints, in all the phylums, in all the world, Judy Schmidt walks into mine :!:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthropod wrote:
<<An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda, which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Arthropods are bilaterally symmetrical and their body possesses an external skeleton. Some species have wings.>>
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arachnid wrote:
<<Arachnida is a class of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata. Spiders are the largest order in the class, which also includes scorpions, ticks, mites, harvestmen, and solifuges. In 2019, a molecular phylogenetic study also placed horseshoe crabs in Arachnida. Almost all adult arachnids have eight legs, although the front pair of legs in some species has converted to a sensory function, while in other species, different appendages can grow large enough to take on the appearance of extra pairs of legs. The term is derived from the Greek word ἀράχνη (aráchnē), from the myth of the hubristic human weaver Arachne, who was turned into a spider.>>
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect wrote:
<<Insecta are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Arthropoda. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, which are dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans.>>
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepidoptera wrote:
<<Lepidoptera (from Ancient Greek lepís “scale” + pterón “wing”) is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. The scales are modified, flattened "hairs" that cover the bodies, wings, and a proboscis. Almost all species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults, normally near or on host plants for the larvae. Like most other insects, butterflies and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis. The larvae are commonly called caterpillars, and are completely different from their adult moth or butterfly forms, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, three pairs of thoracic legs and from none up to five pairs of prolegs. As they grow, these larvae change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once fully matured, the larva develops into a pupa. A few butterflies and many moth species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others do not, instead going underground. A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin, usually with no cocoon. Once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges.

Nearly all insects hatch from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts. The immature stages often differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat, and can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo four-stage metamorphosis. Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages. The higher level relationship of the insects is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm. The most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants.>>
Euarthropodorffer

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by heehaw » Tue Jul 21, 2020 1:17 pm

vdix wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 9:23 am
Planetary nebula... a total misnomer, should have been changed long time ago
Also long ago, we should, everywhere on planet Earth, have adopted: http://zulutime.net

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by neufer » Tue Jul 21, 2020 2:17 pm

heehaw wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 1:17 pm
vdix wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 9:23 am

Planetary nebula... a total misnomer, should have been changed long time ago
Also long ago, we should, everywhere on planet Earth, have adopted: http://zulutime.net
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zulu_language wrote:
  • Counting in isiZulu
The digital numerical counting etiquette on the fingers begins with the little finger of the left hand to the left thumb, and then continuing with the right-hand thumb towards the right little finger. Starting with a closed left hand, each finger is extended with each subsequent number from one to five. Once the left hand is open, then counting continues on the right hand with each finger opening in turn. It is noteworthy that in isiZulu, the names for the numbers six to nine reflect either the anatomical name of the digit (six, isithupha, means ‘thumb’), action (seven, isikhombisa, means ‘the one that points out’), or position/placement (eight, or isishiyagalombili, means ‘two remaining’, and nine, or isishiyagalolunye, indicating ‘one remaining’).

Code: Select all

IsiZulu	 		English
........................................
Kunye	 		One
Kubili	 		Two
Kuthathu	 	Three
Kune	 		Four
Isihlanu	 	Five
Isithupha	 	Six
Isikhombisa	 	Seven
Isishiyagalombili	Eight
Isishiyagalolunye	Nine
Ishumi	 		Ten
  • Months in Zulu

Code: Select all

English 	Zulu
........................................
January 	uMasingane
February 	uNhlolanja
March	 	uNdasa
April	 	UMbasa
May	 	UNhlaba
June	 	UNhlangulana
July	 	uNtulikazi
August	 	UNcwaba
September 	uMandulo
October 	uMfumfu
November 	uLwezi
December 	uZibandlela
>>
Art Neuendorffer

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by johnnydeep » Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:18 pm

neufer wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 12:13 pm
APOD Robot wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:05 am

Explanation: NGC 6302 lies about 4,000 light-years away in the arachnologically [sic] correct constellation of the Scorpion (Scorpius).
NGC 6302 lies about 4,000 light-years away in the arthropologically correct constellation of the Scorpion (Scorpius)
  • Of all the foot joints, in all the phylums, in all the world, Judy Schmidt walks into mine :!:
...

Euarthropodorffer
Yeah, I was trying to figure out what interesting thing APOD was trying to point out by using the tortured word "arachnologically" to describe the constellation Scorpion. Yes, scorpiones is an order of the arachnida class:

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Scorpiones

Is that all they were trying to say? But of course, as you pointed out, though butterflys (like scorpions) are arthropods, they are not even arachnids, let alone scorpions:

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera

Also, should I know who Judy Schmidt is?
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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by BDanielMayfield » Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:50 pm

johnnydeep wrote:Also, should I know who Judy Schmidt is?
Yes. She is aka geckzilla, one of the simultaneously feared and revered moderators here, and the producer of many of the amazing astronomical images shown as APODs from her skilled work with Hubble Telescope data.

Bruce, with a tip of my cap to her dragonship.
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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by bystander » Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:58 pm

johnnydeep wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:18 pm
Also, should I know who Judy Schmidt is?
Probably, we're kind of proud of her around here.

Hint: check out her web site and flickr site:
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alive to the gentle breeze of communication, and please stop being such a jerk.
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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by johnnydeep » Tue Jul 21, 2020 6:01 pm

BDanielMayfield wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:50 pm
johnnydeep wrote:Also, should I know who Judy Schmidt is?
Yes. She is aka geckzilla, one of the simultaneously feared and revered moderators here, and the producer of many of the amazing astronomical images shown as APODs from her skilled work with Hubble Telescope data.

Bruce, with a tip of my cap to her dragonship.
bystander wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:58 pm
johnnydeep wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 4:18 pm
Also, should I know who Judy Schmidt is?
Probably, we're kind of proud of her around here.

Hint: check out her web site and flickr site:
Thanks. So noted! And now that I look, she's actually the processing author attribution for this particular APOD. D'oh!
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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by BDanielMayfield » Tue Jul 21, 2020 7:46 pm

This is interesting, from the explanation's link NGC 6302:
The spectrum of NGC 6302 shows that its central star is one of the hottest stars known, with a surface temperature in excess of 250,000 degrees Celsius, implying that the star from which it formed must have been very large.

The central star, a white dwarf, was identified in 2009, using the upgraded Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope.[7] The star has a current mass of around 0.64 solar masses. It is surrounded by a dense equatorial disc composed of gas and dust. This dense disc is postulated to have caused the star's outflows to form a bipolar structure[8] similar to an hourglass. This bipolar structure shows features such as ionization walls, knots and sharp edges to the lobes.
What prompted me to look pull up the link was wondering where all the iron came from. Stars massive enough to form iron normally don't form PNs and WDs, they explode as core collapse SN.
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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by MarkBour » Tue Jul 21, 2020 8:32 pm

LMMdT wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 7:26 am
In-a-gadda-da-vida :wink:
Nice. I suppose it could get renamed to the Iron Butterfly nebula.
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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by neufer » Tue Jul 21, 2020 10:27 pm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_6302 wrote:

<<NGC 6302 is a bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Scorpius. The structure in the nebula is among the most complex ever observed in planetary nebulae. The central star, among the hottest stars known, had escaped detection because of a combination of its high temperature (meaning that it radiates mainly in the ultraviolet), the dusty torus (which absorbs a large fraction of the light from the central regions, especially in the ultraviolet) and the bright background from the star. It was not seen in the first Hubble Space Telescope images; the improved resolution and sensitivity of the new Wide Field Camera 3 of the same telescope later revealed the faint star at the centre. A temperature of 200,000 Kelvin is indicated, and a mass of 0.64 solar masses. The original mass of the star was much higher, but most was ejected in the event which created the planetary nebula. The luminosity and temperature of the star indicate it has ceased nuclear burning and is on its way to becoming a white dwarf, fading at a predicted rate of 1% per year.>>
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scorpion#Stings wrote: <<All known scorpion species possess venom and use it primarily to kill or paralyze their prey so that it can be eaten. The venom is a mixture of compounds (neurotoxins, enzyme inhibitors, etc.), each not only causing a different effect, but possibly also targeting a specific animal. Each compound is made and stored in a pair of glandular sacs and is released in a quantity regulated by the scorpion itself. Of the more than one thousand known species of scorpions, only 25 have venom that is deadly to humans; most of those belong to the family Buthidae. The deathstalker's powerful venom contains the 36-amino acid peptide chlorotoxin. This blocks small-conductance chloride channels, immobilizing its prey.

Scorpions glows a vibrant blue-green when exposed to certain wavelengths of ultraviolet light such as that produced by a black light, due to the presence of fluorescent chemicals in the cuticle. Fluorescence occurs as a result of sclerotisation and increases in intensity with each successive instar. This fluorescence may have an active role in scorpion light detection. One fluorescent component is beta-carboline. Accordingly, a hand-held UV lamp has long been a standard tool for nocturnal field surveys of these animals.>>
Art Neuendorffer

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by neufer » Tue Jul 21, 2020 10:44 pm

BDanielMayfield wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 7:46 pm

What prompted me to look pull up the link was wondering where all the iron came from.

Stars massive enough to form iron normally don't form PNs and WDs, they explode as core collapse SN.
There is, at least, a lot of highly ionized radiant iron because the hot pre-WD is radiating a lot of UV.
  • It is essentially an optically-thick solar corona on steroids :!:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0b_eHBZLM6U

<<The matter in the external part of the solar atmosphere is in the state of plasma, at very high temperature (a few million kelvin) and at very low density (of the order of 1015 particles/m3). According to the definition of plasma, it is a quasi-neutral ensemble of particles which exhibits a collective behaviour. The composition is similar to that in the Sun's interior, mainly hydrogen, but with much greater ionization than that found in the photosphere. Heavier metals, such as iron, are partially ionized and have lost most of the external electrons. The ionization state of a chemical element depends strictly on the temperature and is regulated by the Saha equation in the lowest atmosphere, but by collisional equilibrium in the optically-thin corona. Historically, the presence of the spectral lines emitted from highly ionized states of iron allowed determination of the high temperature of the coronal plasma, revealing that the corona is much hotter than the internal layers of the chromosphere.>>
Art Neuendorffer

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by geckzilla » Tue Jul 21, 2020 11:49 pm

Feared and revered, haha, good one, Bruce. Maybe reviled or at least mildly disliked.

FWIW I took exception to "arachnologically" because I thought they were more separated than that, but I mean, the first line in Wikipedia says they're arachnids. Plus, I made a similar mistake a while ago, and am extra careful to check things now. It's just as correct, and more specific, to call them arachnids than arthropods. Here are some extra fun arachnids I only learned about in the past couple of years: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amblypygi
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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by BDanielMayfield » Wed Jul 22, 2020 12:31 am

neufer wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 10:44 pm
BDanielMayfield wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 7:46 pm

What prompted me to look pull up the link was wondering where all the iron came from.

Stars massive enough to form iron normally don't form PNs and WDs, they explode as core collapse SN.
There is, at least, a lot of highly ionized radiant iron because the hot pre-WD is radiating a lot of UV.
  • It is essentially an optically-thick solar corona on steroids :!:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0b_eHBZLM6U

<<The matter in the external part of the solar atmosphere is in the state of plasma, at very high temperature (a few million kelvin) and at very low density (of the order of 1015 particles/m3). According to the definition of plasma, it is a quasi-neutral ensemble of particles which exhibits a collective behaviour. The composition is similar to that in the Sun's interior, mainly hydrogen, but with much greater ionization than that found in the photosphere. Heavier metals, such as iron, are partially ionized and have lost most of the external electrons. The ionization state of a chemical element depends strictly on the temperature and is regulated by the Saha equation in the lowest atmosphere, but by collisional equilibrium in the optically-thin corona. Historically, the presence of the spectral lines emitted from highly ionized states of iron allowed determination of the high temperature of the coronal plasma, revealing that the corona is much hotter than the internal layers of the chromosphere.>>
A good explanation Art.

I would further suggest that all of the iron in this nebula was formed (just like in our system) by previous generation(s) of stars. Perhaps much of this iron was melted and vaporized off close orbiting planets and/or asteroids. Note the non uniform distribution of the iron. We might be looking at the smeared out remains of rocky planets.

Bruce
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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by Chris Peterson » Fri Jul 24, 2020 3:05 pm

BDanielMayfield wrote:
Wed Jul 22, 2020 12:31 am
neufer wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 10:44 pm
BDanielMayfield wrote:
Tue Jul 21, 2020 7:46 pm

What prompted me to look pull up the link was wondering where all the iron came from.

Stars massive enough to form iron normally don't form PNs and WDs, they explode as core collapse SN.
There is, at least, a lot of highly ionized radiant iron because the hot pre-WD is radiating a lot of UV.
  • It is essentially an optically-thick solar corona on steroids :!:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0b_eHBZLM6U

<<The matter in the external part of the solar atmosphere is in the state of plasma, at very high temperature (a few million kelvin) and at very low density (of the order of 1015 particles/m3). According to the definition of plasma, it is a quasi-neutral ensemble of particles which exhibits a collective behaviour. The composition is similar to that in the Sun's interior, mainly hydrogen, but with much greater ionization than that found in the photosphere. Heavier metals, such as iron, are partially ionized and have lost most of the external electrons. The ionization state of a chemical element depends strictly on the temperature and is regulated by the Saha equation in the lowest atmosphere, but by collisional equilibrium in the optically-thin corona. Historically, the presence of the spectral lines emitted from highly ionized states of iron allowed determination of the high temperature of the coronal plasma, revealing that the corona is much hotter than the internal layers of the chromosphere.>>
A good explanation Art.

I would further suggest that all of the iron in this nebula was formed (just like in our system) by previous generation(s) of stars. Perhaps much of this iron was melted and vaporized off close orbiting planets and/or asteroids. Note the non uniform distribution of the iron. We might be looking at the smeared out remains of rocky planets.

Bruce
I don't think so. All the iron found in the planets of our own system represents just a tiny fraction of the iron found in the Sun. Any planetary elemental signatures should be lost in the noise of the elements that come from the exploding or expanding star.
Chris

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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by BDanielMayfield » Fri Jul 24, 2020 4:23 pm

Chris Peterson wrote:
Fri Jul 24, 2020 3:05 pm
BDanielMayfield wrote:I would further suggest that all of the iron in this nebula was formed (just like in our system) by previous generation(s) of stars. Perhaps much of this iron was melted and vaporized off close orbiting planets and/or asteroids. Note the non uniform distribution of the iron. We might be looking at the smeared out remains of rocky planets.

Bruce
I don't think so. All the iron found in the planets of our own system represents just a tiny fraction of the iron found in the Sun. Any planetary elemental signatures should be lost in the noise of the elements that come from the exploding or expanding star.
Yes, I get the percentages part of your reasoning Chris, but how are we to account for the un-homogeneous distribution of the ionized iron in this nebula? It looks somewhat like a planer region to me. Wouldn't iron from the star itself be more uniformly distributed?
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Re: APOD: Iron in the Butterfly Nebula (2020 Jul 21)

Post by Chris Peterson » Fri Jul 24, 2020 5:25 pm

BDanielMayfield wrote:
Fri Jul 24, 2020 4:23 pm
Chris Peterson wrote:
Fri Jul 24, 2020 3:05 pm
BDanielMayfield wrote:I would further suggest that all of the iron in this nebula was formed (just like in our system) by previous generation(s) of stars. Perhaps much of this iron was melted and vaporized off close orbiting planets and/or asteroids. Note the non uniform distribution of the iron. We might be looking at the smeared out remains of rocky planets.

Bruce
I don't think so. All the iron found in the planets of our own system represents just a tiny fraction of the iron found in the Sun. Any planetary elemental signatures should be lost in the noise of the elements that come from the exploding or expanding star.
Yes, I get the percentages part of your reasoning Chris, but how are we to account for the un-homogeneous distribution of the ionized iron in this nebula? It looks somewhat like a planer region to me. Wouldn't iron from the star itself be more uniformly distributed?
I account for it the same way I account for the odd distribution we see of everything in planetary nebulas: the ejection of material is not instantaneous and it is not symmetrical. Nor is the composition of the star itself uniform. So different parts of the star are ejected at different times and in different directions.
Chris

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