DESI: Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

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LBNL: Measuring the Expansion of the Universe

Post by bystander » Sun May 03, 2015 6:03 pm

How a New Telescope Will Measure the Expansion of the Universe
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | 2015 Apr 30
A next-generation experiment will create the largest 3D map of the universe and help Berkeley Lab scientists get a handle on dark energy.

For the past several years, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (Berkeley Lab) have been planning the construction of and developing technologies for a very special instrument that will create the most extensive three-dimensional map of the universe to date. Called DESI for Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, this project will trace the growth history of the universe rather like the way you might track your child’s height with pencil marks climbing up a doorframe. But DESI will start from the present and work back into the past.

DESI will make a full 3D map pinpointing galaxies’ locations across the universe. The map, unprecedented in its size and scope, will allow scientists to test theories of dark energy, the mysterious force that appears to cause the accelerating expansion and stretching of the universe first discovered in observations of supernovae by groups led by Saul Perlmutter at Berkeley Lab and by Brian Schmidt, now at Australian National University, and Adam Riess, now at Johns Hopkins University. ...
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DESI: Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Post by bystander » Tue Sep 22, 2015 8:32 pm

DESI: Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion of the universe. It will obtain optical spectra for tens of millions of galaxies and quasars, constructing a 3-dimensional map spanning the nearby universe to 10 billion light years.

DESI will be conducted on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory starting in 2018. DESI is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science to perform this Stage IV dark energy measurement using baryon acoustic oscillations and other techniques that rely on spectroscopic measurements.

DESI, an Ambitious Probe of Dark Energy, Achieves its Next Major Milestone
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | 2015 Sep 21

Dark Energy Spectrometer for Kitt Peak Receives Funding Green Light
National Optical Astronomy Observatory | 2015 Sep 21

Dark energy probe involving U-M reaches critical milestone
University of Michigan | 2015 Sep 21
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Re: DESI: Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Post by saturno2 » Sat Sep 26, 2015 10:02 pm

Very interesting

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Re: DESI: Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Post by neufer » Sun Sep 27, 2015 12:53 pm

bystander wrote:DESI: Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion of the universe
DESI is a term for the people and cultures of the Indian subcontinent ... derived from the Ancient Sanskrit meaning country.

LUCY is an English and French feminine given name ... with the meaning as of light.
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LBNL: Explore Galaxies Far, Far Away at Internet Speeds

Post by bystander » Thu Jan 21, 2016 7:19 pm

Explore Galaxies Far, Far Away at Internet Speeds
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | 2016 Jan 21
[img3="This screenshot, from an interactive Sky Viewer tool, shows a small region of the sky in the vicinity of the galaxy UGC 10041 imaged by the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS). Credit: Dustin Lang/University of Toronto"]http://1t2src2grpd01c037d42usfb.wpengin ... n-Lang.jpg[/img3][hr][/hr]
No need for hyperdrive: Scientists have released an “expansion pack” for a virtual tour of the universe that you can enjoy from the comfort of your own computer. The latest version of the publicly accessible images of the sky, which can be viewed using an interactive Sky Viewer tool, roughly doubles the size of the searchable universe from the project’s original release in May.

The images for this sky-mapping project, dubbed DECaLS (for Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey) were taken by the 520-megapixel Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam).

The scientific aim of DECaLS is to identify a select set of about 40 million galaxies and 2.5 million or more quasars—extremely luminous sources in the distant universe powered by massive black holes—that will be the focus of a ground-breaking project known as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). ...
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LBNL: Gearing Up Galaxy-Seeking Robots

Post by bystander » Wed Jun 15, 2016 4:26 pm

Researchers Gear Up Galaxy-seeking Robots for a Test Run
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | 2016 Jun 13

Berkeley Lab-assembled ‘ProtoDESI’ to serve as model for planned array of 5,000 robots wielding fiber-optic cables.
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
A prototype system, designed as a test for a planned array of 5,000 galaxy-seeking robots, is taking shape at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab).

Dubbed ProtoDESI, the scaled-down, 10-robot system will help scientists achieve the pinpoint accuracy needed to home in on millions of galaxies, quasars and stars with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) planned for the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Ariz. ProtoDESI will be installed on the Mayall Telescope this August and September.

The full DESI project, which is managed by Berkeley Lab, involves about 200 scientists and about 45 institutions from around the globe. DESI will provide the most detailed 3-D map of the universe and probe the secrets of dark energy, which is accelerating the universe's expansion. It is also expected to improve our understanding of dark matter, the infant universe, and the structure of our own galaxy.

The thin, cylindrical robots that will be tested in ProtoDESI each carry a fiber-optic cable that will be precisely pointed at selected objects in the night sky in order to capture their light. A predecessor galaxy-measuring project, called BOSS, required the light-gathering cables to be routinely plugged by hand into metal plates with holes drilled to match the position of pre-selected sky objects. DESI will automate and greatly speed up this process.

Each 10-inch-long robot has two small motors in it that allow two independent rotating motions to position a fiber anywhere within a circular area 12 millimeters in diameter. In the completed DESI array, these motions will enable the 5,000 robots to cover every point above their metal, elliptical base, which measures about 2.5 feet across.

That requires precise, software-controlled choreography so that the tightly packed robots don't literally bump heads as they spin into new positions several times each hour to collect light from different sets of pre-selected sky objects. ...
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LBNL: 3-D Galaxy-Mapping Project Enters Construction Phase

Post by bystander » Thu Aug 11, 2016 2:08 pm

3-D Galaxy-mapping Project Enters Construction Phase
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | 2016 Aug 09

DESI, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, will measure light from 35M galaxies to provide new clues about dark energy.

A 3-D sky-mapping project that will measure the light of millions of galaxies has received formal approval from the U.S. Department of Energy to move forward with construction. Installation of the project, called DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument), is set to begin next year at the Nicholas U. Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Ariz., with observations starting up in January 2019.

This latest DOE approval step, known as Critical Decision 3, triggers spending for major components of the project, including the remainder of the 5,000 finger-width, 10-inch-long cylindrical robots that will precisely point the fiber-optic cables to gather the light from a chosen set of galaxies, stars, and brilliant objects called quasars. The spending will also be used to complete the set of 10 fiber-fed spectrographs that will precisely measure different wavelengths of incoming light.

This light will tell us about the properties of the galaxies, stars, and quasars, and most importantly, how quickly they are moving away from us—light from objects that are moving away from us is shifted to redder wavelengths (“redshift”). These details can help us learn more about the nature of dark energy that is driving the accelerating expansion of the universe. DESI’s observations will provide a deep look back in time, up to about 11 billion years ago. ...
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LBNL: Creating a World of Make-Believe to Better Understand the Real Universe

Post by bystander » Fri Dec 15, 2017 9:02 pm

Creating a World of Make-Believe to Better Understand the Real Universe
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | 2017 Dec 14

Researchers design mock galaxies and more to prepare for sky-mapping instrument

Seeing is believing, or so the saying goes.

And in some cases, a world of make-believe can help you realize what you’re actually seeing, too.

Scientists are creating simulated universes, for example – complete with dark matter mock-ups, computer-generated galaxies, quasi quasars, and pseudo supernovae ­– to better understand real-world observations.

Their aim is to envision how new Earth-based and space-based sky surveys will see the universe, and to help analyze and interpret the vast treasure troves of data that these surveys will amass. ...

Several DESI teams are building out separate simulations populated with the many types of objects DESI will encounter. ...

The computerized models are informed by observations from previous surveys and by large-scale simulations of the universe that account for complex physics including dark matter, an unknown form of matter that, together with dark energy, makes up about 95 percent of the total mass and energy in the universe. ...
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NOAO: New Chapter Begins for Kitt Peak Telescope

Post by bystander » Mon Feb 12, 2018 9:21 pm

New Chapter Begins for Kitt Peak Telescope
National Optical Astronomy Observatory | 2018 Feb 12

4-m Mayall prepares for installation of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

A new chapter opens today in the history of the 4-m Mayall telescope, the largest aperture telescope at NSF’s Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). Having completed its first 45-year-long assignment, the telescope is now poised to embark on a new mission: creating the largest 3-dimensional map of the cosmos to date. The map will help astronomers chart out the role of dark energy in the expansion history of the Universe.

When the Mayall first opened its eye to the sky 45 years ago, it was one of the largest optical telescopes in existence. Designed to be versatile, its mission was to assist astronomers in addressing the wide diversity of astronomical questions facing the field. Tremendously successful, it played an important role in many astronomical discoveries, such as establishing the role of dark matter in the Universe from measurements of galaxy rotation, and determining the scale and structure of the Universe.

Today it sheds its identity as an “all-purpose research tool” and, reinventing itself, turns to a new dedicated mission that will tackle one of the most profound problems in physics: understanding the mysterious physics of dark energy, an unknown form of energy that is believed to permeate all of space and accelerate the expansion of the Universe.

To prepare for its new mission, the Mayall will close temporarily. Over the next 15 months, it will undergo the largest overhaul in its history in preparation for the installation of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) , a massively parallel optical spectrometer capable of measuring the spectra of 5000 astronomical objects simultaneously. ...

Solving the Dark Energy Mystery: A New Assignment for a 45-Year-Old Telescope
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | 2018 Feb 12
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Topping Off a Telescope with New Tools to Explore Dark Energy

Post by bystander » Wed Dec 05, 2018 3:39 pm

Topping Off a Telescope with New Tools to Explore Dark Energy
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | 2018 Dec 04
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone.

DESI will create the largest 3-D map of the universe by gathering light from tens of millions of galaxies after its scheduled startup in late 2019. It is designed to provide more precise measurements of dark energy, which is accelerating the universe’s expansion and looms as one of the universe’s biggest mysteries. ...

The new top-end components include a 3.4-ton barrel-shaped, steel-framed structure, known as a corrector, that houses a precisely stacked array of large (the largest is 1.1 meters in diameter), delicate lenses. ...
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LBNL: DESI's Lenses See the Night Sky for the First Time

Post by bystander » Fri Apr 05, 2019 6:36 pm

Dark Energy Instrument’s Lenses See the Night Sky for the First Time
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | 2019 Apr 03

DESI project reaches important milestone in successfully demonstrating precise focusing, alignment of its lens assembly

On April 1, the dome of the Mayall Telescope near Tucson, Arizona, opened to the night sky, and starlight poured through the assembly of six large lenses that were carefully packaged and aligned for a new instrument that will launch later this year.

Just hours later, scientists produced the first focused images with these precision lenses – the largest is 1.1 meters in diameter – during this early test spin, marking an important “first light” milestone for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, or DESI. This first batch of images homed in on the Whirlpool Galaxy to demonstrate the quality of the new lenses. ...

This phase of the project will continue for about six weeks and will require the efforts of several onsite scientists and remote observers ... When completed later this year, DESI will see and measure the sky’s light in a far different way than this assembly of lenses. It is designed to take in thousands of points of light instead of a single, large picture.

The finished DESI will measure the light of tens of millions of galaxies reaching back 12 billion light-years across the universe. It is expected to provide the most precise measurement of the expansion of the universe and provide new insight into dark energy, which scientists explain is causing this expansion to accelerate. ...
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Re: DESI: Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Post by Fred the Cat » Sun Apr 14, 2019 4:02 pm

Who needs a spaceship when we can fly through space from our couches? 8-)
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Re: DESI: Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Post by neufer » Mon Apr 15, 2019 3:26 pm

Fred the Cat wrote:
Sun Apr 14, 2019 4:02 pm

Who needs a spaceship when we can fly through space from our couches? 8-)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Trek:_The_Original_Series wrote:
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
<<In April 1964, Gene Roddenberry presented the Star Trek draft to DESIlu Productions, a leading independent television production company. He met with Herbert F. Solow, DESIlu's Director of Production. Solow saw promise in the idea and signed a three-year program-development contract with Roddenberry. Lucille Ball, head of DESIlu, was not familiar with the nature of the project, but she was instrumental in getting the pilot produced.

DESIlu Productions had a first look deal with CBS. Oscar Katz, DESIlu's Vice President of Production, went with Roddenberry to pitch the series to the network. They refused to purchase the show, as they already had a similar show in development, the 1965 Irwin Allen series Lost in Space.

In May 1964, Solow, who previously worked at NBC, met with Grant Tinker, then head of the network's West Coast programming department. Tinker commissioned the first pilot – which became "The Cage". NBC turned down the resulting pilot, stating that it was "too cerebral". However, the NBC executives were still impressed with the concept, and they understood that its perceived faults had been partly because of the script that they had selected themselves.

NBC made the unusual decision to pay for a second pilot, using the script called "Where No Man Has Gone Before". Only the character of Spock, played by Leonard Nimoy, was retained from the first pilot, and only two cast members, Majel Barrett and Nimoy, were carried forward into the series. This second pilot proved to be satisfactory to NBC, and the network selected Star Trek to be in its upcoming television schedule for the fall of 1966.

The second pilot introduced most of the other main characters: Captain Kirk (William Shatner), Chief Engineer Lt. Commander Scott (James Doohan) and Lt. Sulu (George Takei), who served as a physicist on the ship in the second pilot but subsequently became a helmsman throughout the rest of the series.

In February 1966, Star Trek was nearly canceled by DESIlu Productions, before airing the first episode. DESIlu had gone from making just one half-hour show (The Lucy Show), to deficit financing a portion of two expensive hour-long shows, Mission: Impossible and Star Trek. Solow was able to convince Lucille Ball that both shows should continue.>>
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Re: DESI: Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Post by Fred the Cat » Mon Apr 15, 2019 5:03 pm

neufer wrote:
Mon Apr 15, 2019 3:26 pm
Fred the Cat wrote:
Sun Apr 14, 2019 4:02 pm

Who needs a spaceship when we can fly through space from our couches? 8-)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Trek:_The_Original_Series wrote:
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
<<In April 1964, Gene Roddenberry presented the Star Trek draft to DESIlu Productions, a leading independent television production company. He met with Herbert F. Solow, DESIlu's Director of Production. Solow saw promise in the idea and signed a three-year program-development contract with Roddenberry. Lucille Ball, head of DESIlu, was not familiar with the nature of the project, but she was instrumental in getting the pilot produced.

DESIlu Productions had a first look deal with CBS. Oscar Katz, DESIlu's Vice President of Production, went with Roddenberry to pitch the series to the network. They refused to purchase the show, as they already had a similar show in development, the 1965 Irwin Allen series Lost in Space.

In May 1964, Solow, who previously worked at NBC, met with Grant Tinker, then head of the network's West Coast programming department. Tinker commissioned the first pilot – which became "The Cage". NBC turned down the resulting pilot, stating that it was "too cerebral". However, the NBC executives were still impressed with the concept, and they understood that its perceived faults had been partly because of the script that they had selected themselves.

NBC made the unusual decision to pay for a second pilot, using the script called "Where No Man Has Gone Before". Only the character of Spock, played by Leonard Nimoy, was retained from the first pilot, and only two cast members, Majel Barrett and Nimoy, were carried forward into the series. This second pilot proved to be satisfactory to NBC, and the network selected Star Trek to be in its upcoming television schedule for the fall of 1966.

The second pilot introduced most of the other main characters: Captain Kirk (William Shatner), Chief Engineer Lt. Commander Scott (James Doohan) and Lt. Sulu (George Takei), who served as a physicist on the ship in the second pilot but subsequently became a helmsman throughout the rest of the series.

In February 1966, Star Trek was nearly canceled by DESIlu Productions, before airing the first episode. DESIlu had gone from making just one half-hour show (The Lucy Show), to deficit financing a portion of two expensive hour-long shows, Mission: Impossible and Star Trek. Solow was able to convince Lucille Ball that both shows should continue.>>
Well, so much for " No Smoking on the Bridge "! At least in Season 2 " Lasting Impressions" of The Orville. :wink:
Freddy's Felicity "Only ascertain as a cat box survivor"