The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

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The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by bystander » Tue Sep 25, 2012 6:15 pm

Hubble goes to the eXtreme to assemble the deepest ever view of the Universe
ESA/HEIC | STScI HubbleSite | NASA Hubble | 2012 Sep 25
Like photographers assembling a portfolio of their best shots, astronomers have assembled a new, improved portrait of our deepest-ever view of the Universe. Called the eXtreme Deep Field, or XDF, the photo was assembled by combining ten years of NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope observations taken of a patch of sky within the original Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The XDF is a small fraction of the angular diameter of the full Moon.

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field is an image of a small area of space in the constellation of Fornax (The Furnace), created using Hubble Space Telescope data from 2003 and 2004. By collecting faint light over one million seconds of observation, the resulting image revealed thousands of galaxies, both nearby and very distant, making it the deepest image of the Universe ever taken at that time.

The new full-colour XDF image is even more sensitive than the original Hubble Ultra Deep Field image, thanks to the additional observations, and contains about 5500 galaxies, even within its smaller field of view. The faintest galaxies are one ten-billionth the brightness that the unaided human eye can see [1].

Magnificent spiral galaxies similar in shape to the Milky Way and its neighbour the Andromeda galaxy appear in this image, as do large, fuzzy red galaxies in which the formation of new stars has ceased. These red galaxies are the remnants of dramatic collisions between galaxies and are in their declining years as the stars within them age.

Peppered across the field are tiny, faint, and yet more distant galaxies that are like the seedlings from which today’s magnificent galaxies grew. The history of galaxies — from soon after the first galaxies were born to the great galaxies of today, like the Milky Way — is laid out in this one remarkable image.

Hubble pointed at a tiny patch of southern sky in repeat visits made over the past decade with a total exposure time of two million seconds [2]. More than 2000 images of the same field were taken with Hubble’s two primary cameras: the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3, which extends Hubble’s vision into near-infrared light. These were then combined to form the XDF.

“The XDF is the deepest image of the sky ever obtained and reveals the faintest and most distant galaxies ever seen. XDF allows us to explore further back in time than ever before,” said Garth Illingworth of the University of California at Santa Cruz, principal investigator of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2009 (HUDF09) programme.

The Universe is 13.7 billion years old, and the XDF reveals galaxies that span back 13.2 billion years in time. Most of the galaxies in the XDF are seen when they were young, small, and growing, often violently as they collided and merged together. The early Universe was a time of dramatic birth for galaxies containing brilliant blue stars far brighter than our Sun. The light from those past events is just arriving at Earth now, and so the XDF is a time tunnel into the distant past when the Universe was just a fraction of its current age. The youngest galaxy found in the XDF existed just 450 million years after the Universe’s birth in the Big Bang.

Before Hubble was launched in 1990, astronomers were able to see galaxies up to about seven billion light-years away, half way back to the Big Bang. Observations with telescopes on the ground were not able to establish how galaxies formed and evolved in the early Universe.

Hubble gave astronomers their first view of the actual forms of galaxies when they were young. This provided compelling, direct visual evidence that the Universe is truly changing as it ages. Like watching individual frames of a motion picture, the Hubble deep surveys reveal the emergence of structure in the infant Universe and the subsequent dynamic stages of galaxy evolution.

The planned NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope (Webb telescope) will be aimed at the XDF, and will study it with its infrared vision. The Webb telescope will find even fainter galaxies that existed when the Universe was just a few hundred million years old. Because of the expansion of the Universe, light from the distant past is stretched into longer, infrared wavelengths. The Webb telescope’s infrared vision is ideally suited to push the XDF even deeper, into a time when the first stars and galaxies formed and filled the early “dark ages” of the Universe with light.

[list=1]Notes:

[*] The faintest objects detected in the XDF are 31st magnitude.

[*] The total exposure time is approximately two million seconds, or 23 days. Because Hubble can only observe for about 45 minutes of every 97-minute orbit, the observations that make up the XDF represent 50 days of telescope time.[/list][/b][/i]

Credit: NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth, D. Magee, and P. Oesch (UCSC), R. Bouwens (Leiden University), and the HUDF09 Team

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Hubble Goes to the eXtreme in Stunning New Deepest View Ever of the Universe
Universe Today | Nancy Atkinson | 2012 Sep 25

Revealing the Universe: the Hubble Extreme Deep Field
Discover Blogs | Bad Astronomy | 2012 Sep 25
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by orin stepanek » Tue Sep 25, 2012 11:54 pm

bystander wrote:Hubble goes to the eXtreme to assemble the deepest ever view of the Universe
ESA/HEIC | STScI HubbleSite | NASA Hubble | 2012 Sep 25

Hubble Goes to the eXtreme in Stunning New Deepest View Ever of the Universe
Universe Today | Nancy Atkinson | 2012 Sep 25

Revealing the Universe: the Hubble Extreme Deep Field
Discover Blogs | Bad Astronomy | 2012 Sep 25
It's amazing what one can see these days! :D
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Beyond » Wed Sep 26, 2012 1:21 am

orin wrote:It's amazing what one can see these days! :D
Reminds me of an old movie with Ray Milland, The Man With The X-ray Eyes.
To find the Truth, you must go Beyond.

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Closing in on the gods

Post by neufer » Wed Sep 26, 2012 3:05 am

[b][color=#FF0000]Beyond[/color][/b] wrote:
orin wrote:
It's amazing what one can see these days! :D
Reminds me of an old movie with Ray Milland, The Man With The X-ray Eyes.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_%281963_film%29 wrote: Dr. James Xavier: I'm blind to all but a tenth of the universe.

Dr. Sam Brant: My dear friend, only the gods see everything.

Dr. James Xavier: My dear doctor, I'm closing in on the gods.
...............................
<<X: The Man with the X-Ray Eyes) is a 1963 science fiction/horror motion picture directed by Roger Corman with Ray Milland as Dr. James Webb Xavier & Don Rickles as Crane. Shot in a mere three weeks for $300,000, Corman described the film's success as a miracle. The film won the 1963 Best Film Award, The Silver Spaceship, at the First International Festival of Science Fiction Films.

Dr. James Webb Xavier develops eyedrops intended to increase the range of human vision, allowing one to see beyond the "visible" spectrum into the ultraviolet and x-ray wavelengths and beyond. Believing that testing on animals and volunteers will produce uselessly subjective observations, he begins testing the drops on himself.

Initially, Xavier discovers that he can see though people's clothing, and he uses his vision to save a young girl whose medical problem was misdiagnosed. Over time and with continued use of the drops, Xavier's visual capacity increases and his ability to control it decreases. Eventually he can no longer see the world in human terms, but only in forms of lights and textures that his brain is unable to fully comprehend. Even closing his eyes brings no relieving darkness from his frightening world, as he can see through his eyelids. His behavior becomes increasingly erratic, and Xavier's associates assume that he is going insane.

After accidentally killing a friend, Xavier goes on the run, using his x-ray vision first to work in a carnival, and then to win at gambling in a casino. Xavier's eyes are altered along with his vision: first they become black and silver, and then entirely black. To hide his startling appearance, he wears dark wrap-around sunglasses at all times.

At the end of the movie, Xavier drives out to an Oklahoma desert and wanders into a religious tent revival. He tells the evangelist that he is beginning to see things at the edges of the universe, including an "eye that sees us all" in the center of the universe.
  • Preacher: Are you a sinner? Do you wish to be saved?

    Dr. James Xavier: Saved? No. I've come to tell you what I see. There are great darknesses. Farther than time itself. And beyond the darkness... a light that glows, changes... and in the center of the universe... the eye that sees us all.
    [Looks up at the sky]

    Dr. James Xavier: No!

    Preacher: You see sin and the devil! But the lord has told us what to do about it.
    Said Matthew in Chapter Five, "If thine eye offends thee... pluck it out!"
    >>
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Psnarf » Wed Sep 26, 2012 3:22 pm

Largest image:

http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/imag ... ll_tif.tif

If this is a subset of the Hubble Deep Field, how can we overlay the region? I'd like to see how many galaxies in the HDF have left the theater in the XDF, accelerated beyond the horizon so its photons won't get here this century.

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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by bystander » Wed Sep 26, 2012 5:08 pm

Psnarf wrote:If this is a subset of the Hubble Deep Field, how can we overlay the region? I'd like to see how many galaxies in the HDF have left the theater in the XDF, accelerated beyond the horizon so its photons won't get here this century.
This has nothing to do with either HDF-N (1996) or HDF-S (1998). It is a smaller field within the same patch of sky as the HUDF (2004), but I wouldn't call it a subset. It uses data from HUDF, before HUDF, and after HUDF (July 2002 to March 2012). XDF is 2.3 by 2.0 arcmin centered at RA 3h 32m 38s.5 Dec -27° 47' 00" in the constellation Fornax. HUDF is 3 by 3 arcmin centered at RA 3h 32m 40s.0 Dec -27° 48' 00".
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by neufer » Wed Sep 26, 2012 6:46 pm

Click to play embedded YouTube video.
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Psnarf » Sun Sep 30, 2012 4:35 pm

I apologize for the stupid question. Once a galaxy moves beyond the horizon, its photons can never reach us. If it is accelerating to a significant fraction of c, all bets are off. There must be galaxies near the limit that have vanished from our sight. If not, that might refute the ever increasing rate of expansion.

I still find it difficult to accept that the "nothing" into which we're expanding exists. Attempting to prove the reification of nothing is an endeavour devoutly to be wished, full of sound and fury signifying nothing. I must accept that is the way it is, always was and always will be.

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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Chris Peterson » Sun Sep 30, 2012 5:03 pm

Psnarf wrote:I apologize for the stupid question. Once a galaxy moves beyond the horizon, its photons can never reach us. If it is accelerating to a significant fraction of c, all bets are off. There must be galaxies near the limit that have vanished from our sight. If not, that might refute the ever increasing rate of expansion.
The horizon of the observable universe is the surface beyond which the Universe (and any objects it contains) are moving away from us at faster than c (there was, and is, no acceleration in the usual physical sense of the word). There are no galaxies at the edge as we observe it for the simple reason that none existed when those photons were emitted.
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by bystander » Sun Sep 30, 2012 5:08 pm

Psnarf wrote:I still find it difficult to accept that the "nothing" into which we're expanding exists.
You are correct. There is no "outside the universe". The universe is not expanding into anything, it is simply getting bigger.

Going back to the 2d analogy of the surface of an expanding balloon, from the viewpoint of a point on the surface, everything is receding, therefore the surface is expanding. It isn't expanding "into" anything. It's just getting bigger.
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Beyond » Sun Sep 30, 2012 9:29 pm

Hmm... then the "big bang", which supposedly came from nothing or a particle, has just been getting bigger, in the nothing that it big-banged into, billions of years ago?
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Chris Peterson » Sun Sep 30, 2012 9:49 pm

Beyond wrote:Hmm... then the "big bang", which supposedly came from nothing or a particle, has just been getting bigger, in the nothing that it big-banged into, billions of years ago?
That's about it.
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Beyond » Mon Oct 01, 2012 12:21 am

Chris wrote:That's about it.
Well, perhaps the James Webb Telescope will be able to see enough of 'back-when" to be able to tell what really happened as to how the universe started. As for myself... i tend to go with a big bang blowing a "hole-in-a-wall", thus "something" from somewhere else has flowed through it, and may even now still be flowing, causeing the universe to get bigger.
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Ann » Mon Oct 01, 2012 12:41 am

Beyond wrote:
Chris wrote:That's about it.
Well, perhaps the James Webb Telescope will be able to see enough of 'back-when" to be able to tell what really happened as to how the universe started. As for myself... i tend to go with a big bang blowing a "hole-in-a-wall", thus "something" from somewhere else has flowed through it, and may even now still be flowing, causeing the universe to get bigger.
That's the multiverse hypothesis. :mrgreen:

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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Chris Peterson » Mon Oct 01, 2012 12:45 am

Beyond wrote:
Chris wrote:That's about it.
Well, perhaps the James Webb Telescope will be able to see enough of 'back-when" to be able to tell what really happened as to how the universe started. As for myself... i tend to go with a big bang blowing a "hole-in-a-wall", thus "something" from somewhere else has flowed through it, and may even now still be flowing, causeing the universe to get bigger.
The JWST won't see that far back... no optical telescope can. All it will do is let us see a little earlier, and hopefully get a better understanding of how galaxies came to be. That might indirectly help us to understand the Big Bang itself, perhaps by narrowing down the existing variations on theory.
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Beyond » Mon Oct 01, 2012 1:40 am

Chris wrote:The JWST won't see that far back...
Aw heck :!: Where's a Dr. Xavier when you need one :?:
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Beyond » Mon Oct 01, 2012 5:25 am

Ann wrote:That's the multiverse hypothesis.
Um... no. At least not from what i read about the multiverse theory after Googleing Bing-ing it. They seem to have the cart and the horse lined up wrong.
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by bystander » Mon Oct 01, 2012 5:37 am

Beyond wrote:i tend to go with a big bang blowing a "hole-in-a-wall", thus "something" from somewhere else has flowed through it, and may even now still be flowing, causeing the universe to get bigger.
Sounds like a White Hole.
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by Beyond » Mon Oct 01, 2012 2:12 pm

bystander wrote:
Beyond wrote:i tend to go with a big bang blowing a "hole-in-a-wall", thus "something" from somewhere else has flowed through it, and may even now still be flowing, causeing the universe to get bigger.
Sounds like a White Hole.
Yeah, it does sound a little like that. But according to Stephen Hawking, white holes and black holes are the same thing.
I tend to think of it more like a hole in a very big dam, and we're on the down-stream side of the hole. So unlike a black hole which may have dual personalities, this "hole-in-a-wall" is more like a one-way street.
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Re: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

Post by bystander » Thu Oct 04, 2012 5:37 am

Know the quiet place within your heart and touch the rainbow of possibility; be
alive to the gentle breeze of communication, and please stop being such a jerk.
— Garrison Keillor