APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

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APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by APOD Robot » Tue Feb 04, 2014 5:05 am

Image A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24

Explanation: If you visit HH 24, don't go near the particle beam jet. This potential future travel advisory might be issued because the powerful jet likely contains electrons and protons moving hundreds of kilometers per second. The above image was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in infrared light in order to better understand turbulent star forming regions known as Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Frequently when a star forms, a disk of dust and gas circles the YSO causing a powerful central jets to appear. In this case, the energetic jets are creating, at each end, Herbig-Haro object 24 (HH 24), as they slam into the surrounding interstellar gas. The entire star forming region lies about 1,500 light years distant in the Orion B molecular cloud complex. Due to their rarity, jets like that forming HH 24 are estimated to last only a few thousand years.

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by Ann » Tue Feb 04, 2014 5:14 am

Great picture, Geckzilla!

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by Nitpicker » Tue Feb 04, 2014 5:49 am

I don't know much about HH objects, but I know what I like.
APOD Robot wrote:If you visit HH 24, don't go near the particle beam jet. This potential future travel advisory might be issued because the powerful jet likely contains electrons and protons moving hundreds of kilometers per second. <snip> The entire star forming region lies about 1,500 light years distant in the Orion B molecular cloud complex. Due to their rarity, jets like that forming HH 24 are estimated to last only a few thousand years.
I don't think we'd be able to get to HH 24 in time to be pelted by its particle beams.

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by geckzilla » Tue Feb 04, 2014 6:57 am

Well, yeah, but new HH objects could pop up unexpectedly in any given molecular cloud so an advisory would be nice. [be--ep] [be--ep] The Galactic Weather Service has issued a particle jet warning for LDN 1641N. Conditions are expected to last until stardate 4100. Be advised. [be--ep] [be--ep] [Message repeats.]
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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by starsurfer » Tue Feb 04, 2014 7:10 am

geckzilla is wonderful! HH 24 is near M78, it is the large red Herbig Haro object that can be seen in pretty much every amateur image of it.

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by Nitpicker » Tue Feb 04, 2014 7:14 am

geckzilla wrote:Well, yeah, but new HH objects could pop up unexpectedly in any given molecular cloud so an advisory would be nice. [be--ep] [be--ep] The Galactic Weather Service has issued a particle jet warning for LDN 1641N. Conditions are expected to last until stardate 4100. Be advised. [be--ep] [be--ep] [Message repeats.]
[be--ep] [be--ep] Be advised. You are on board an interstellar starship, a few light years from the nearest star. This is the ship's computer speaking. Ya really shoulda given more thought to powering the ship throughout such a long journey. Shutting down life support. Be advised. [be--ep] [be--ep]

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by Nitpicker » Tue Feb 04, 2014 7:25 am

starsurfer wrote:geckzilla is wonderful! HH 24 is near M78, it is the large red Herbig Haro object that can be seen in pretty much every amateur image of it.
Is HH 24 within NGC 2071?

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by geckzilla » Tue Feb 04, 2014 7:26 am

These sorts of fictions always require FTL travel, Nit. Don't be silly.
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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by lester » Tue Feb 04, 2014 7:37 am

"Due to their rarity, jets like that forming HH 24 are estimated to last only a few thousand years." Erm, no. The cause-effect relationship is the reverse... "Jets like that forming HH 24 are estimated to last only a few thousand years, and hence are rare." Better...

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by Nitpicker » Tue Feb 04, 2014 7:43 am

lester wrote:"Due to their rarity, jets like that forming HH 24 are estimated to last only a few thousand years." Erm, no. The cause-effect relationship is the reverse... "Jets like that forming HH 24 are estimated to last only a few thousand years, and hence are rare." Better...
I pondered that bit too. But how do you know their rarity isn't used as a factor in estimating their lifespan?

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by Nitpicker » Tue Feb 04, 2014 11:37 am

Nitpicker wrote:
starsurfer wrote:geckzilla is wonderful! HH 24 is near M78, it is the large red Herbig Haro object that can be seen in pretty much every amateur image of it.
Is HH 24 within NGC 2071?
Hmmm, looks like the answer is no. HH 24 is on the other side of M78 from NGC 2071. I guess I was looking at the wrong amateur images.

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by BDanielMayfield » Tue Feb 04, 2014 1:26 pm

This really is a great image. Congrats Judy, aka geckzilla. It has the look and emotional feel of one of those neonatal photographs of an infant cradled in its mother’s womb, for here, stars are being born. And it is much more than just one star, there’s a whole clutch of the little tikes in the brightest part of the photo to the right of the still hidden protostar producing the jets. And also if you follow the lower jet down to where it forms a blob where it hits denser dust, and then look to the right, we can see another blob. This is probably another shock front formed by a jet from another newborn star that’s hidden behind thicker dust.

So this stellar nursery is “about 1,500 LY away” but how much area is covered? I was wondering how long the jets are.

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by neufer » Tue Feb 04, 2014 1:42 pm

Nitpicker wrote:
lester wrote:
"Due to their rarity, jets like that forming HH 24 are estimated to last only a few thousand years." Erm, no. The cause-effect relationship is the reverse... "Jets like that forming HH 24 are estimated to last only a few thousand years, and hence are rare." Better...
I pondered that bit too. But how do you know their rarity isn't used as a factor in estimating their lifespan?
Lifespan is directly related to observed abundance:
  • 1) New stars are generated at a rate of about one per year in the Milky Way.
    2) If Herbig-Haro Jets last N years then there should be about N Jets in the Milky Way.
Herbig-Haro Jet Movies from HST
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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by van111 » Tue Feb 04, 2014 2:04 pm

Don't understand what the rarity of the jets has to do with its estimated lifetime?

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by BMAONE23 » Tue Feb 04, 2014 2:35 pm

My guess would be that, since they aren't relatively abundant, either they are rare or fleeting or both otherwise there would be more within a lifespan

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by g0mrb » Tue Feb 04, 2014 2:58 pm

I can't help but notice that today's superb picture looks just like the sun through clouds on a stormy day.

Considering the fact that HH24 is 1,500 light years away, that's a huge, awesome event. And it's dwarfed by some of the things which Hubble has detected and studied.

Thanks for maintaining the high standards of APOD.

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by geckzilla » Tue Feb 04, 2014 3:20 pm

BDanielMayfield wrote:So this stellar nursery is “about 1,500 LY away” but how much area is covered? I was wondering how long the jets are.
It's a narrow field of view. If you view the original size you can actually count the pixels and somewhat accurately determine how many arcseconds one thing or another is, because each pixel represents 0.13 arcseconds. That said, the jets actually extend beyond the picture frame. You'd also have to figure out what angle we are viewing them at. I find it impossible to tell if we are getting a near enough to edge-on view that it's negligible or not. If they're pointing somewhat toward us they could be a lot longer than they appear.
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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by Roland » Tue Feb 04, 2014 4:31 pm

Looks like the vapor trail of an FTL ship passing through.

Roland

Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by Roland » Tue Feb 04, 2014 4:37 pm

Anyone else notice the trajectory change each time the beam passes through dense clouds?

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by neufer » Tue Feb 04, 2014 4:43 pm

APOD Robot wrote:Image A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24

Explanation: If you visit HH 24, don't go near the particle beam jet.

This potential future travel advisory might be issued because the powerful jet
likely contains electrons and protons moving hundreds of kilometers per second.
The potential danger of a particle beam jet of electrons & protons
moving hundreds of kilometers per second :!:
seems a little overblown considering that the Earth, itself, sits in
a solar wind of electrons & protons moving hundreds of kilometers per second.

So how does the density of Herbig-Haro jets compare to the Solar Wind?

A 200 km/s Herbig-Haro jet of density 20,000 cm-3 produces a dynamic pressure of ~1,300 nPa
versus a solar wind pressure at 1 AU typically in the range of 1–6 nPa (nano Pascals).

(Note: Solar sails near Earth rely on photon reflection pressures of ~9,000 nPa.)

A Herbig-Haro jet thus would probably present a problem to both
the atmospheres and the dynamics of Oort cloud like objects.

However, a Herbig-Haro jet would present no more harm
to a well clad astronaut than non-relativistic alpha particles would
:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_particle#Energy_and_absorption wrote:
<<Alpha particles have a lower speed (with a typical kinetic energy of 5 MeV; the speed is 15,000 km/s, which is 5% of the speed of light) than any other common type of radiation (β particles, neutrons, etc.) [Such non-relativistic] alpha particles are easily absorbed by materials, and they can travel only a few centimetres in air. They can be absorbed by tissue paper or the outer layers of human skin (about 40 micrometres, equivalent to a few cells deep).>>
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999A%26A...342..717B wrote:
Ionization and density along the beams of Herbig-Haro jets
Bacciotti, Francesca; Eislöffel, Jochen
Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.342, p.717-735 (1999)

Abstract: Physical properties of several well-known Herbig-Haro jets are investigated using an improved version of the spectroscopic diagnostic technique originally developed by Bacciotti et al. The procedure allows one to derive in a model-independent way the hydrogen ionization fraction in regions of low excitation. The ionization fraction, the electron and gas density, and the average excitation temperature are derived for various positions along the flows. We find that the hydrogen ionization fraction, with typical initial values of 20-30%, generally decreases along the whole jet or along parts of the flow, following well-defined recombination laws. These results are consistent with the idea that the gas is initially ionized in the jet acceleration region, and then slowly recombines while traveling away from the source. If shocks along the jet beam are present, they can at most have a minor contribution to the ionization of the gas, as apparent in HH 34 and in the first 45\arcsec of the HH 46/47 jet, where the ionization fraction decreases almost monotonically. In the jets in which re-ionization episodes occur (i.e. HH 24C/E and HH 24G), the ionization fraction suddenly increases and then gently decays downstream of the re-ionization event. Both findings apparently disfavour a mini-bow shock interpretation for the production of the ionization of the beam. The total densities derived from the ratio between the electron density and the ionization fraction range from about 103 to a few 104 cm-3 . Without applying a correction for shock compression, the average mass loss rate varies from 3.8 10-8 (in the HL Tau jet) to 1.2 10-6 Msun yr-1 (in HH24 G), while momentum supply rates vary between 1.6 10-5 (in the HL Tau jet) and 3.1 10-4 Msun yr-1 km s-1 (in HH 24G). Taking shock compression into account, these values may be reduced by a factor 3-5.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_wind wrote:
<<The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×106 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×105 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

The slow solar wind appears to originate from a region around the Sun's equatorial belt that is known as the "streamer belt". Coronal streamers extend outward from this region, carrying plasma from the interior along closed magnetic loops. Observations of the Sun between 1996 and 2001 showed that emission of the slow solar wind occurred between latitudes of 30–35° around the equator during the solar minimum (the period of lowest solar activity), then expanded toward the poles as the minimum waned. By the time of the solar maximum, the poles were also emitting a slow solar wind.

The fast solar wind is thought to originate from coronal holes, which are funnel-like regions of open field lines in the Sun's magnetic field. Such open lines are particularly prevalent around the Sun's magnetic poles. The plasma source is small magnetic fields created by convection cells in the solar atmosphere. These fields confine the plasma and transport it into the narrow necks of the coronal funnels, which are located only 20,000 kilometers above the photosphere. The plasma is released into the funnel when these magnetic field lines reconnect.

The solar wind exerts a pressure at 1 AU typically in the range of 1–6 nPa, although it can readily vary outside that range.
The dynamic pressure is a function of wind speed and density. The formula is: P = 1.6726×10−6 * n * V2
where pressure P is in nPa (nano Pascals), n is the density in particles/cm3 and V is the speed in km/s of the solar wind.>>
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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by BDanielMayfield » Tue Feb 04, 2014 5:47 pm

So, according to your calculations Art, trill seeking interstellar travelers could windsurf such jets? Gnarly, dude! :lol2:
Just as zero is not equal to infinity, everything coming from nothing is illogical.

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by seveneagles » Tue Feb 04, 2014 6:13 pm

Fantastic photo. I heart the Hubble.

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by geckzilla » Tue Feb 04, 2014 6:46 pm

neufer wrote: The potential danger of a particle beam jet of electrons & protons
moving hundreds of kilometers per second :!:
seems a little overblown considering that the Earth, itself, sits in
a solar wind of electrons & protons moving hundreds of kilometers per second.

So how does the density of Herbig-Haro jets compare to the Solar Wind?

A 200 km/s Herbig-Haro jet of density 20,000 cm-3 produces a dynamic pressure of ~1,300 nPa
versus a solar wind pressure at 1 AU typically in the range of 1–6 nPa (nano Pascals).
Maybe it's not dense enough or maybe... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatoli_Bugorski
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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by orin stepanek » Tue Feb 04, 2014 7:08 pm

I like today's APOD geckzilla; it's really nice! 8-)
Orin

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Re: APOD: A Particle Beam Jet forms HH 24 (2014 Feb 04)

Post by neufer » Tue Feb 04, 2014 7:26 pm

geckzilla wrote:
neufer wrote:
The potential danger of a particle beam jet of electrons & protons
moving hundreds of kilometers per second :!:
seems a little overblown considering that the Earth, itself, sits in
a solar wind of electrons & protons moving hundreds of kilometers per second.

So how does the density of Herbig-Haro jets compare to the Solar Wind?

A 200 km/s Herbig-Haro jet of density 20,000 cm-3 produces a dynamic pressure of ~1,300 nPa
versus a solar wind pressure at 1 AU typically in the range of 1–6 nPa (nano Pascals).
Maybe it's not dense enough or maybe...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatoli_Bugorski wrote:
The left half of Anatoli Bugorski's face swelled up beyond recognition, and over the next several days, started peeling off, revealing the path that the proton beam (moving near the speed of light) had burned through parts of his face, his bone, and the brain tissue underneath.
  • The HH 24 proton beam moving near 0.1% the speed of light
    wouldn't have made it through Anatoli Bugorski's thick head of hair.
Art Neuendorffer