APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

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APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by APOD Robot » Sat Jan 02, 2016 5:09 am

Image Sky Lights in the New Year

Explanation: Triggered by the impact of a coronal mass ejection on New Year's eve, a moderate geomagnetic storm brought a celebration of sky lights to planet Earth's high latitudes yesterday. In this New Year's nightscape, the shimmering reddish curtains of aurora australis along a southern horizon are captured over Morgiana, SW Victoria, Australia. Of course, more permanent jewels of the southern skies are on the scene. The southern Milky Way, Alpha and Beta Centauri, and bright stars of the Southern Cross are on the left. In silhouette, branches of the large foreground tree stretch across the Milky Way's satellite galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic clouds. The bright star framed near the tips of tree branches at right is Achernar. Alpha star of the constellation Eridanus, Achernar is sometimes known as the southern end of the river.

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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by Beyond » Sat Jan 02, 2016 5:23 am

Ann is going to love the "end of the river" in this APOD!!
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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by Ann » Sat Jan 02, 2016 7:37 am

Beyond wrote:Ann is going to love the "end of the river" in this APOD!!
I do! :D

But I also love the difference in color between our own galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The two Clouds of Magellan are really dominated by young blue stars in a way that make them so different from our own galaxy.

In his book The Galaxies of the Local Group, Sidney van den Bergh discussed the star formation of the Magellanic Clouds. His discussion of the Large Cloud is the most interesting. Sidney van den Bergh wrote:
The idea that a violent burst of star formation in the LMC followed a rather lengthy period of quiescence was first introduced by Butcher(1977).
...
Butcher concluded that a dramatic increase in the rate of star formation had taken place in the LMC 3-5 Gyr ago.
...
Bertelli et al. (1992) estimated that the mean rate of star formation in the Large Cloud was as much as ten times higher after the burst had started than it had been previously.
...
From their observation of a field located (..) from the center of the LMC Elson et al. (1997) found that only ~5% of the stars in this field belong to the old disk population that predated the great burst of star formation that started ~3 Gyr ago.
Teh Large Magellanic Cloud. Photo: Alan Dyer.
The expression "Gyr" means "billion years. The gist of what Sidney van den Bergh wrote here is that most of the stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud seem to have formed in the last 3 billion years. Fascinatingly, van den Bergh speculated that the Large Magellanic Cloud might have been a mild example of a low surface brightness galaxy before it suddenly ran into starburst mode about three billion years ago. And while the greatest burst of star formation in the LMC took place about 3 billion years ago, the LMC keeps forming new stars at a very high rate.
This is so different from our own galaxy, which probably formed most of its stars about 10 to 12 billion years ago or so, and its rate of star formation has likely been decreasing ever since then. Because our own galaxy contains so many old stars, it has a large yellow bulge, an old yellow thick disk and huge amounts of dust from eons of star formation. The Magellanic Clouds contain no bulges and little dust.

Other large galaxies typically have satellite galaxies that are mostly devoid of star formation. What makes the Magellanic Clouds so different? Although I can't find the source now, I know there has been speculation that the Magellanic Clouds might have only rather recently been captured by the Milky Way. It is fascinating to speculate that the great burst of star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud (and to a lesser extent in the Small Magellanic Cloud) might have something to do with them being captured by our own big bully of a galaxy and having their gas stirred up and jostled by the powerful gravity of the Milky Way.

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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by Animal of Stone » Sat Jan 02, 2016 12:51 pm

Well done Gill Fry. The most beautiful New Years fireworks i have ever seen.

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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by Boomer12k » Sat Jan 02, 2016 1:22 pm

The Sky is celebrating.... :D

Time goes on....

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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by ThePiper » Sat Jan 02, 2016 2:07 pm

Ann wrote: But I also love the difference in color between our own galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The two Clouds of Magellan are really dominated by young blue stars in a way that make them so different from our own galaxy...
But I preferre to stay here on earth where I need a whole summer to tan. @LMC it would be done in some seconds. Right?
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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by Chris Peterson » Sat Jan 02, 2016 4:35 pm

Ann wrote:The expression "Gyr" means "billion years.
It does (although "billion" is ambiguous). However, if you're doing your own writing, "Ga" is the preferred unit for 109 years.
Chris

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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by neufer » Sat Jan 02, 2016 8:33 pm

Chris Peterson wrote:
"Ga" is the preferred unit for 109 years.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebraic_geometry_and_analytic_geometry wrote:
GAGA: Géometrie Algébrique et Géométrie Analytique by Serre proves general results that relate classes of algebraic varieties, regular morphisms & sheaves with classes of analytic spaces, holomorphic mappings & sheaves. It reduces all of these to the comparison of categories of sheaves.
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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by Beyond » Sat Jan 02, 2016 8:42 pm

Are you rejoicing while bringing in those sheaves, neufer? You could use those sheaves to celebrate the 10,000th member of the good ship Asterisk* coming on board.
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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by neufer » Sat Jan 02, 2016 9:01 pm

Beyond wrote:
Are you rejoicing while bringing in those sheaves, neufer?

You could use those sheaves to celebrate the 10,000th member of the good ship Asterisk* coming on board.
Would that be 'jebersole' :?: (joined: Sat Jan 02, 2016 8:13 am)

Another 'sole' saved... Hallelujah :!:

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doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him.
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<<A sheaf is a tool for systematically tracking locally defined data attached to the open sets of a topological space. The data can be restricted to smaller open sets, and the data assigned to an open set is equivalent to all collections of compatible data assigned to collections of smaller open sets covering the original one. For example, such data can consist of the rings of continuous or smooth real-valued functions defined on each open set. Sheaves are by design quite general and abstract objects, and their correct definition is rather technical. They exist in several varieties such as sheaves of sets or sheaves of rings, depending on the type of data assigned to open sets.>>
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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by BillBixby » Sat Jan 02, 2016 10:49 pm

Chris Peterson wrote:
Ann wrote:The expression "Gyr" means "billion years.
It does (although "billion" is ambiguous). However, if you're doing your own writing, "Ga" is the preferred unit for 109 years.
Thank you Chris, for reminding us that from 'ten to the ninth,' onward, this world does not agree on what the words billions, trillions, etc mean. It was discussed in the link below.

http://asterisk.apod.com/viewtopic.php? ... 12#p193812

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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by DavidLeodis » Sun Jan 03, 2016 12:40 pm

The photo is superb. :clap:

In information in Gill's resume in the Network SW Consulting website that can be brought up through her Facebook section it states of Gill (Gillian) "Gillian Fry B.Ag.Sc(hons), Dip Bus Mgt" and she is "The Principal Consultant of Network SW Consulting". So not only is Gill an excellent photographer (not just astrophotography) she is also a very active business person.

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Re: APOD: Sky Lights in the New Year (2016 Jan 02)

Post by Ron-Astro Pharmacist » Mon Jan 04, 2016 5:29 pm

DavidLeodis wrote:The photo is superb. :clap:

In information in Gill's resume in the Network SW Consulting website that can be brought up through her Facebook section it states of Gill (Gillian) "Gillian Fry B.Ag.Sc(hons), Dip Bus Mgt" and she is "The Principal Consultant of Network SW Consulting". So not only is Gill an excellent photographer (not just astrophotography) she is also a very active business person.
neufer wrote:
Chris Peterson wrote:
"Ga" is the preferred unit for 109 years.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebraic_geometry_and_analytic_geometry wrote:
GAGA: Géometrie Algébrique et Géométrie Analytique by Serre proves general results that relate classes of algebraic varieties, regular morphisms & sheaves with classes of analytic spaces, holomorphic mappings & sheaves. It reduces all of these to the comparison of categories of sheaves.
These look like lots of fun. So do sheaves and other shapes that inhabit the mind. :wink:
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