APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

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APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by APOD Robot » Fri Oct 13, 2023 4:06 am

Image Hydrogen Clouds of M33

Explanation: Gorgeous spiral galaxy Messier 33 seems to have more than its fair share of glowing hydrogen gas. A prominent member of the local group of galaxies, M33 is also known as the Triangulum Galaxy and lies a mere 3 million light-years away. The galaxy's central 30,000 light-years or so are shown in this sharp galaxy portrait. The portrait features M33's reddish ionized hydrogen clouds or HII regions. Sprawling along loose spiral arms that wind toward the core, M33's giant HII regions are some of the largest known stellar nurseries, sites of the formation of short-lived but very massive stars. Intense ultraviolet radiation from the luminous, massive stars ionizes the surrounding hydrogen gas and ultimately produces the characteristic red glow. In this image, broadband data were combined with narrowband data recorded through a hydrogen-alpha filter. That filter transmits the light of the strongest visible hydrogen emission line.

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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by Ann » Fri Oct 13, 2023 6:04 am

Nice APOD! I particularly like all the bubble nebulas:

APOD 13 October 2023 detail.png
And just check out the spiral arm at lower left! It's full of bubbles.

The "bubble nebulas" that we see in M33 are mature. Their gas is dispersing, and star formation in the center of these particular nebulas have (in most cases at least) come to an end (although low-mass star formation may possibly continue along the nebula's perimeter).

We may compare the Rosette Nebula with the Orion Nebula, where the Rosette Nebula has exhausted its gas in the center, whereas the Orion Nebula is still "full of gas" and very bright in its center:


I really appreciate today's APOD, where bright blue-white stars are seen scattered like grains of sand all over the galaxy in the full resolution image. And as I've said, all the details seen in all those emission nebulas are fascinating indeed.

Still, there is such a thing as not being able to see the forest for the trees - or, in this case, not being able to see the trees for the forest.

Or, to be precise, not being able to see the really bright nebulas for all the scattered nebulosity seen all over the place. So I recommend a picture by Adam Block, where the bright nebulas really stand out!

Messier-33[1].jpg
Triangulum Galaxy (Messier 33). Image: Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/
University of Arizona

Note two really bright nebulas in M33: NGC 604 at upper right, and NGC 595 to the lower right of the yellow center of M33. A closeup of NGC 604 shows us that there are bubbles in NGC 604 as well:


And did you know that the second brightest nebula in M33 is NGC 595? I didn't, so enjoy!


Ann
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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by Knight of Clear Skies » Fri Oct 13, 2023 12:52 pm

I wonder if those large bubble nebulae are closer in nature to Barnard's Loop rather than something like the Rosette?
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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by Chris Peterson » Fri Oct 13, 2023 1:20 pm

Knight of Clear Skies wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 12:52 pm I wonder if those large bubble nebulae are closer in nature to Barnard's Loop rather than something like the Rosette?
Yes. Unlike the Rosette (or the Bubble), these are not planetary nebulas, created by the expansion of gases off of an exploding or bursting star, but complex regions of hydrogen (vastly larger) that are being sculpted by gravity and stellar winds.
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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by orin stepanek » Fri Oct 13, 2023 2:01 pm

M33_Triangulum1024.jpg
Triangulum Galaxy; full of hydrogen gas! 8-)
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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by Ann » Fri Oct 13, 2023 4:23 pm

Chris Peterson wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 1:20 pm
Knight of Clear Skies wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 12:52 pm I wonder if those large bubble nebulae are closer in nature to Barnard's Loop rather than something like the Rosette?
Yes. Unlike the Rosette (or the Bubble), these are not planetary nebulas, created by the expansion of gases off of an exploding or bursting star, but complex regions of hydrogen (vastly larger) that are being sculpted by gravity and stellar winds.
Correct, Chris. My bad.The bubbles in M33 are like Barnard's Loop, not like relatively small emission nebulas like the Rosette Nebula.

And they are not planetary nebulas either. :mrgreen: Sorry. I couldn't resist.

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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by johnnydeep » Fri Oct 13, 2023 7:06 pm

APOD Robot wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 4:06 am Image Hydrogen Clouds of M33

Explanation: Gorgeous spiral galaxy Messier 33 seems to have more than its fair share of glowing hydrogen gas. A prominent member of the local group of galaxies, M33 is also known as the Triangulum Galaxy and lies a mere 3 million light-years away. The galaxy's central 30,000 light-years or so are shown in this sharp galaxy portrait. The portrait features M33's reddish ionized hydrogen clouds or HII regions. Sprawling along loose spiral arms that wind toward the core, M33's giant HII regions are some of the largest known stellar nurseries, sites of the formation of short-lived but very massive stars. Intense ultraviolet radiation from the luminous, massive stars ionizes the surrounding hydrogen gas and ultimately produces the characteristic red glow. In this image, broadband data were combined with narrowband data recorded through a hydrogen-alpha filter. That filter transmits the light of the strongest visible hydrogen emission line.

Where NGC 604 is located (using the image from the M33's giant HII regions link (I think I have the orientation mostly correct):

NGC 604 in M33.jpg
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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by AVAO » Fri Oct 13, 2023 9:19 pm

Chris Peterson wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 1:20 pm
Knight of Clear Skies wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 12:52 pm I wonder if those large bubble nebulae are closer in nature to Barnard's Loop rather than something like the Rosette?
Yes. Unlike the Rosette (or the Bubble), these are not planetary nebulas, created by the expansion of gases off of an exploding or bursting star, but complex regions of hydrogen (vastly larger) that are being sculpted by gravity and stellar winds.
The Rosette Nebula is not a planetary nebula but, as an open star cluster, is also a former star-forming region. I think this is relatively small but basically comparable to the sometimes also very small bubbles in M33.

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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by Chris Peterson » Fri Oct 13, 2023 9:25 pm

AVAO wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 9:19 pm
Chris Peterson wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 1:20 pm
Knight of Clear Skies wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 12:52 pm I wonder if those large bubble nebulae are closer in nature to Barnard's Loop rather than something like the Rosette?
Yes. Unlike the Rosette (or the Bubble), these are not planetary nebulas, created by the expansion of gases off of an exploding or bursting star, but complex regions of hydrogen (vastly larger) that are being sculpted by gravity and stellar winds.
The Rosette Nebula is not a planetary nebula but, as an open star cluster, is also a former star-forming region. I think this is relatively small but basically comparable to the sometimes also very small bubbles in M33.
Yeah, I sort of remembered that when I typed it, but just carried on...
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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by AVAO » Sat Oct 14, 2023 1:51 pm

Ann wrote: Fri Oct 13, 2023 6:04 am ...

The "bubble nebulas" that we see in M33 are mature. Their gas is dispersing, and star formation in the center of these particular nebulas have (in most cases at least) come to an end (although low-mass star formation may possibly continue along the nebula's perimeter).

We may compare the Rosette Nebula with the Orion Nebula, where the Rosette Nebula has exhausted its gas in the center, whereas the Orion Nebula is still "full of gas" and very bright in its center:

...
Note two really bright nebulas in M33: NGC 604 at upper right, and NGC 595 to the lower right of the yellow center of M33. A closeup of NGC 604 shows us that there are bubbles in NGC 604 as well:

And did you know that the second brightest nebula in M33 is NGC 595? I didn't, so enjoy!

Ann

ThanX Ann

Upon closer inspection, I think that comparing NGC 595 with the Rossette Nebula (Caldwell 49) makes sense.
For NGC 604, I would compare it more to the Tarantula Nebula (30 Doradus).

Jac

jac berne NGC 595 JWST false colors (flickr)

jac berne NGC 604 HST (flickr)
bigg:https://live.staticflickr.com/65535/532 ... 23ec_o.jpg



https://blogs.nasa.gov/superpressurebal ... x1370.png
The Tarantula Nebula taken by the Super Pressure Balloon Imaging Telescope (SuperBIT). Credits: NASA/SuperBIT

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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by starsurfer » Sun Oct 15, 2023 10:03 pm

When was the last supernova in M33?

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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by Ann » Mon Oct 16, 2023 3:58 am

starsurfer wrote: Sun Oct 15, 2023 10:03 pm When was the last supernova in M33?
That may or may not be known, but I have found no easily accessible data on it.

I did find this rather curious entry on an M33 recent "supernova":
Rochester Astronomy wrote:

Discovered by Edwin Hubble (USA). M33 variable C is an LBV (Luminour Blue Variable). It was initially discovered by the great Edwin Hubble in 1953. This object, almost invisible for many years suddenly flared back to life in 2013. An LBV in outburst like this have been known flare into supernovae. We have a Photometry reference image made by Odd Trondal. This supernova is in the Constellation Triangulum.
Well, I'm unimpressed. If you go the the Rochester page, you'll see the "rise" of this supernova. It wasn't much of a rise! So the thing in question is an LBV and very possibly a future supernova, but not a supernova yet.

According to ResearchGate, the total number of known supernova remnants in M33 is about 50.

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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by johnnydeep » Mon Oct 16, 2023 1:04 pm

Ann wrote: Mon Oct 16, 2023 3:58 am
starsurfer wrote: Sun Oct 15, 2023 10:03 pm When was the last supernova in M33?
That may or may not be known, but I have found no easily accessible data on it.

I did find this rather curious entry on an M33 recent "supernova":
Rochester Astronomy wrote:

Discovered by Edwin Hubble (USA). M33 variable C is an LBV (Luminour Blue Variable). It was initially discovered by the great Edwin Hubble in 1953. This object, almost invisible for many years suddenly flared back to life in 2013. An LBV in outburst like this have been known flare into supernovae. We have a Photometry reference image made by Odd Trondal. This supernova is in the Constellation Triangulum.
Well, I'm unimpressed. If you go the the Rochester page, you'll see the "rise" of this supernova. It wasn't much of a rise! So the thing in question is an LBV and very possibly a future supernova, but not a supernova yet.

According to ResearchGate, the total number of known supernova remnants in M33 is about 50.

Ann
Luminour Blue Variable? I'm not impressed by Rochester Astronomy's editors. :ssmile:
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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by Ann » Mon Oct 16, 2023 5:03 pm

johnnydeep wrote: Mon Oct 16, 2023 1:04 pm
Ann wrote: Mon Oct 16, 2023 3:58 am
starsurfer wrote: Sun Oct 15, 2023 10:03 pm When was the last supernova in M33?
That may or may not be known, but I have found no easily accessible data on it.

I did find this rather curious entry on an M33 recent "supernova":
Rochester Astronomy wrote:

Discovered by Edwin Hubble (USA). M33 variable C is an LBV (Luminour Blue Variable). It was initially discovered by the great Edwin Hubble in 1953. This object, almost invisible for many years suddenly flared back to life in 2013. An LBV in outburst like this have been known flare into supernovae. We have a Photometry reference image made by Odd Trondal. This supernova is in the Constellation Triangulum.
Well, I'm unimpressed. If you go the the Rochester page, you'll see the "rise" of this supernova. It wasn't much of a rise! So the thing in question is an LBV and very possibly a future supernova, but not a supernova yet.

According to ResearchGate, the total number of known supernova remnants in M33 is about 50.

Ann
Luminour Blue Variable? I'm not impressed by Rochester Astronomy's editors. :ssmile:
I saw it too. (Kind of hard to miss.) :ssmile:

But I decided not to correct other people's spelling mistakes! :mrgreen:

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Re: APOD: Hydrogen Clouds of M33 (2023 Oct 13)

Post by johnnydeep » Mon Oct 16, 2023 6:49 pm

Ann wrote: Mon Oct 16, 2023 5:03 pm
johnnydeep wrote: Mon Oct 16, 2023 1:04 pm
Ann wrote: Mon Oct 16, 2023 3:58 am

That may or may not be known, but I have found no easily accessible data on it.

I did find this rather curious entry on an M33 recent "supernova":



Well, I'm unimpressed. If you go the the Rochester page, you'll see the "rise" of this supernova. It wasn't much of a rise! So the thing in question is an LBV and very possibly a future supernova, but not a supernova yet.

According to ResearchGate, the total number of known supernova remnants in M33 is about 50.

Ann
Luminour Blue Variable? I'm not impressed by Rochester Astronomy's editors. :ssmile:
I saw it too. (Kind of hard to miss.) :ssmile:

But I decided not to correct other people's spelling mistakes! :mrgreen:

Ann
Well, I did briefly think it might have been a new term that my ignorant self didn't yet know. Hey, aren't The Luminours a musical group? Oh, wait, that's the Lumineers:

Click to play embedded YouTube video.
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