JPL: EO-1 Providing Estimates of Iceland Volcano Emissions

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JPL: EO-1 Providing Estimates of Iceland Volcano Emissions

Post by bystander » Thu Apr 08, 2010 4:47 am

NASA Sensors Providing Rapid Estimates of Iceland Volcano Emissions
NASA JPL 2010-117 - 2010 Apr 07
A NASA research team is using the latest advances in satellite artificial intelligence to speed up estimates of the heat and volume of lava escaping from an erupting volcano in Iceland.

On March 20, 2010, Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano (pronounced "AYA-feeyapla-yurkul,") awakened for the first time in 120 years, spewing still-active lava fountains and flows. That day, a NASA "sensor web" -- a network of sensors on the ground and aboard NASA's Earth Observing-1 satellite, alerted researchers to this new volcanic "hot spot." The eruption was detected by autonomous "sciencecraft" software aboard the satellite, which is known as EO-1.

Sciencecraft software enables the spacecraft to analyze science data onboard to detect scientific events and respond by sending alerts, producing scientific products and/or re-imaging the event.

The software is typically able to notify researchers on the ground within 90 minutes of detecting events, and then rapidly sets up the satellite to observe them. In the case of the Iceland volcanic event, EO-1 was able to take advantage of recently uploaded "smart" software that allows the spacecraft to react quickly to an event and to rapidly downlink the data for processing by ground personnel in less than 24 hours. That process used to take three weeks for researchers working manually.
Image
False-color short-wavelength infrared image of Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull volcano from data obtained by
NASA's EO-1 Hyperion satellite on March 24, 2010. (NASA/JPL/EO-1 Mission/GSFC/Ashley Davies)

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Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by neufer » Thu Apr 15, 2010 12:19 pm

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=43252 wrote:
<<Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull Volcano burst into life for the first time in 190 years on March 20, 2010.
Image

A 500-meter- (2,000-foot) long fissure opened in the Fimmvörduháls pass to the west of the ice-covered summit of Eyjafjallajökull. Lava fountains erupted fluid magma, which quickly built several hills of bubble-filled lava rocks (scoria) along the vent. A lava flow spread northeast, spilling into Hrunagil Gully.>>
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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by neufer » Thu Apr 15, 2010 1:58 pm

http://www.latimes.com/news/nation-and-world/la-fg-volcano-flights16-2010apr16,0,6553752.story wrote:
Volcanic ash closes European airports, stranding tens of thousands of travelers
janet.stobart@latimes.com April 15, 2010 | 7:10 a.m.

<<For the first time since Sept. 11, 2001, all British airports were ordered shut down Thursday, a move prompted not by terrorism but by drifting ash spewed from an Icelandic volcano. Air traffic also was halted over Ireland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, stranding tens of thousands of travelers. Shutdowns and cancellations spread to France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Britain's National Air Traffic Control Service issued the order at midday and said later that it would last until at least 6 a.m. Friday morning. (10 p.m. Thursday PDT). The service said that "there will be no flights permitted in U.K.-controlled airspace other than emergency situations," concluding, "It is very unlikely that the situation over England will improve in the foreseeable future." It issued continual bulletins as the threatening sulfuric cloud drifting over northern Scotland was forecast to reach down across the British Isles and over to continental Europe throughout Thursday. International flights to and from the United States are likely to be affected. "The ash borne by winds in the direction of Britain and Scandinavia is known to interfere with aircraft engines, causing them to shut down," it warned.

The U.S. Geological Survey said about 100 aircraft encountered volcanic ash from 1983 to 2000. In some cases, engines shut down briefly after sucking in volcanic debris, but there have been no fatal incidents. The ash also interferes with visibility.

Although some airports were closed at 7 a.m. Thursday, thousands of passengers who knew nothing of the situation turned up for flights, only to be turned away and told of indefinite delays. Gradually throughout the morning, disappointed travelers were clogging airports, and immobile aircraft were causing huge parking problems on runways.

At Manchester Airport, crowded by about 45,000 people and 300 grounded aircraft, passenger Donna Thomas told BBC reporter that she'd expected to be in Orlando, Fla., later Thursday. "Now we're waiting for taxi to go home," she said. Her bored teenage son, Matthew ,was equally fed up and complaining: "I had to get up at half five this morning, which wasn't good."

Dr. Hazel Rymers, a vulcanologist from the Open University, told the BBC that the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull caused such a massive ash cloud because "its source is underneath an icecap about 200 meters thick." The eruption is causing "not so much lava flows but rocks turning into ash shooting up between 8 and 11 kilometers up, and that's what's causing the cloud."

The closing of British skies is "a movable feast," said Cathy West of the British Airways' press office. "We've told passengers to go home and offered them refunds or rebooking." A spokesman for Heathrow Airport said, "We don't yet know when restrictions will be lifted," and workers there too were telling passengers not to come to the airport. Paul Haskins, a spokesman for the air traffic service, told the BBC at around midday that "the volcano is still erupting and affecting the U.K.'s upper air." Weather office officials were monitoring the situation, but the eventual outcome is unpredictable, and the reopening of airports ultimately depends on the wind and the activity of Eyjafjallajokull.

In Iceland, hundreds of people fled floodwaters after the volcano under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier erupted Wednesday for the second time in less than a month. As water gushed down the mountainside, rivers rose up to 10 feet by Wednesday night, slicing the island nation's main road in half.>>
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ESA: New satellite image of volcanic ash cloud

Post by bystander » Thu Apr 15, 2010 2:16 pm

ESA: New satellite image of volcanic ash cloud (15 April 2010)
Image
This image, acquired today by ESA's Envisat satellite, shows the vast cloud of volcanic ash sweeping across the UK from the eruption in Iceland, more than 1000 km away.

Carried by winds high up in the atmosphere, the cloud of ash from the eruption of the Eyjafjallajoekull glacier in southwest Iceland has led to the closure of airports throughout the UK and Scandinavia, with further disruption in northern Europe expected later today. The ash, which can be seen as the large grey streak in the image, is drifting from west to east at a height of about 11 km above the surface Earth. It poses a serious danger to aircraft engines; hence the airspace shut down.

The volcano erupted, for the first time since 1821, on 20 March and started erupting for a second time on Wednesday. The volcano, under the glacier ice, has caused ice melt and subsequent flooding and damage locally.

This image was acquired on 15 April 2010, at 13.25 (CEST) by Envisat's Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) while working in Full Resolution Mode to provide a spatial resolution of 300 metres.
ESA: Animation of the ash plume from Icelandic eruption (15 April 2010)

NASA'S Terra Satellite Captures Ash Plume of Icelandic Volcano (15 April 2010)
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The MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured an Ash plume from Eyjafjallajokull Volcano over
the North Atlantic at 11:35 UTC (7:35 a.m. EDT) on April 15, 2010. (NASA/MODIS Rapid Response Team)

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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by wonderboy » Thu Apr 15, 2010 3:18 pm

Just goes to show you doesn't it? imagine if yellow stone pop popped off? all the airports would be shut, how would I be able to go on holiday then? Gutted :( ....... :P
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80beats: Volcanic Eruption Causes Floods, Shuts Down Air Tra

Post by bystander » Thu Apr 15, 2010 4:13 pm

Volcanic Eruption in Iceland Causes Floods, Shuts Down European Air Travel
Don’t be fooled by the name—Iceland is one of the hottest hotspots in the world, geologically speaking. The island’s volcanic legacy reared its head again yesterday as a massive eruption by a volcano beneath a glacier caused the evacuation of hundreds of residents and created ash clouds that delayed flights all around Northern Europe.
Discover Blogs: 80beats - 15 April 2010
Iceland's volcanic ash halts flights across Europe
PhysOrg Earth Sciences - 15 Apr 2010
Ash clouds from Iceland's spewing volcano disrupted air traffic across Northern Europe on Thursday as authorities closed British and Nordic air space, shut down Europe's busiest airport at Heathrow and canceled hundreds of flights.
How volcanic ash threatens aircraft
New Scientist - 15 April 2010
Britain's National Air Traffic Service (NATS) has closed UK airspace after volcanic ash from an erupting volcano in Iceland began drifting over the UK.
Image
Ash (in black) drifts towards the UK (Eumetsat)

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UT: Spectacular Footage of Eyjafjallajokull Volcano in Icel

Post by bystander » Thu Apr 15, 2010 7:34 pm


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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by owlice » Thu Apr 15, 2010 7:38 pm

WOW!!!
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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by bystander » Fri Apr 16, 2010 2:32 pm

Volcanic Eruption in Iceland Unlikely to Have Global Effects
CU-Boulder - 16 April 2010
The eruption of an Icelandic volcano that sent a huge plume of ash into the atmosphere and caused sweeping disruptions of air traffic over Great Britain and Scandinavia today will likely dissipate in the next several days, according to a University of Colorado at Boulder atmospheric scientist.

Professor Brian Toon, chair of CU-Boulder's atmospheric and oceanic sciences department, said the plume created by the eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull Volcano contains tiny rock particles made up of silicate and basaltic glass that can be extremely damaging to aircraft engines. Unfortunately, the plume is at about 30,000 feet -- the same altitude as jet aircraft fly -- and is directly in the flight path between New York and Europe, he said.

The destination and duration of the volcanic plume depends primarily on weather conditions like rain and winds, said Toon. The plume should get washed away by rain as it continues to drift east, and likely will have no effect on the United States, he said. Fortunately, the plume also is below the stratosphere, where volcanic gases can have global effects because of a lack of rain there prohibits the removal of volcanic material.

Toon said the amount of sulfur dioxide spewed by the volcano so far poses no threat to world climate as determined by an instrument aboard NASA's Aura satellite. But he noted than an apparently larger eruption of an Icelandic volcano in 1783 --which was written about by Benjamin Franklin -- caused some climate issues in Europe by creating smog-like conditions in London that partially blocked out the sun and persisted through the summer months.

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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by neufer » Fri Apr 16, 2010 2:53 pm

bystander wrote:Volcanic Eruption in Iceland Unlikely to Have Global Effects
CU-Boulder - 16 April 2010
Toon said the amount of sulfur dioxide spewed by the volcano so far poses no threat to world climate as determined by an instrument aboard NASA's Aura satellite. But he noted than an apparently larger eruption of an Icelandic volcano in 1783 --which was written about by Benjamin Franklin -- caused some climate issues in Europe by creating smog-like conditions in London that partially blocked out the sun and persisted through the summer months.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laki wrote:
<<Laki or Lakagígar (Craters of Laki) is a volcanic fissure situated in the south of Iceland, not far from the small town Kirkjubæjarklaustur, in Skaftafell National Park. On 8 June 1783, a fissure with 130 craters opened with phreatomagmatic explosions because of the groundwater interacting with the rising basalt magma. Over a few days the eruptions became less explosive, Strombolian, and later Hawaiian in character, with high rates of lava effusion. This event is rated as VEI 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, but the eight month emission of sulfuric aerosols resulted in one of the most important climatic and socially repercussive events of the last millennium.

In Great Britain, the summer of 1783 was known as the "sand-summer" due to ash fallout. The gases were carried by the convective eruption column to altitudes of about 15 kilometres (10 mi). The aerosols built up causing a cooling effect in the Northern Hemisphere.

The eruption continued until 7 February 1784, but most of the lava was erupted in the first five months. Grímsvötn volcano, from which the Laki fissure extends, was also erupting at the time from 1783 until 1785. The outpouring of gases, including an estimated 8 million tons of hydrogen fluoride and estimated 120 million tons of sulfur dioxide gave rise to what has since become known as the "Laki haze" across Europe.

The consequences for Iceland—known as the Mist Hardships—were catastrophic. An estimated 20-25% of the population died in the famine and fluorine poisoning after the fissure eruptions ceased. Around 80% of sheep, 50% of cattle and 50% of horses died because of dental and skeletal fluorosis from the 8 million tons of hydrogen fluoride that were released.

The parish priest Jón Steingrímsson grew famous because of his eldmessa ("fire sermon"). The people of the small town of Kirkjubæjarklaustur were worshipping while the town was endangered by a lava stream, which ceased to flow, not far from town, with the townsfolk still in church..

The summer of 1783 was the hottest on record and a rare high pressure zone over Iceland caused the winds to blow to the south-east. The poisonous cloud drifted to Bergen in Norway, then spread to Prague in the Province of Bohemia by 17 June, Berlin by 18 June, Paris by 20 June, Le Havre by 22 June, and to Great Britain by 23 June. The fog was so thick that boats stayed in port, unable to navigate, and the sun was described as "blood coloured".

The haze also heated up causing severe thunderstorms with hailstones that were reported to have killed cattle until it dissipated in the autumn. This disruption then led to a most severe winter in 1784, where Gilbert White at Selborne in Hampshire reported 28 days of continuous frost.

In North America, the winter of 1784 was the longest and one of the coldest on record. It was the longest period of below-zero temperatures in New England, the largest accumulation of snow in New Jersey, and the longest freezing over of Chesapeake Bay. There was ice skating in Charleston Harbor, a huge snowstorm hit the south, the Mississippi River froze at New Orleans, and there was ice in the Gulf of Mexico.>>
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JPL: Satellite Eyes Iceland Volcano Cauldron

Post by bystander » Sun Apr 18, 2010 4:17 pm

Satellite Eyes Iceland Volcano Cauldron
NASA JPL 2010-134 - 18 April 2010
On Saturday, April 17, 2010, the Hyperion instrument onboard NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft obtained this pair of images of the continuing eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano. In the left-hand image, created from visible wavelengths, new black ash deposits are visible on the ground, as well as nearby brilliant unsullied ice and snow and the volcano's brown, billowing plume. The plume's dark color reflects its large ash content. These fine particles of pulverized rock are carried high into the atmosphere, where they create a hazard for aviation and are carried long distances by the prevailing winds.

In contrast, the false-color, infrared image at the right reveals the intense thermal emissions (at least 60 megawatts, or 60 million watts) emanating from the vent at the base of the massive plume. This thermal emission, equivalent to the energy consumption of 60,000 homes, represents only a small proportion of the total energy being released by the volcano as its molten lava interacts violently with ice and water. Each image covers an area measuring 7.7 kilometers (4.8 miles) wide, and has a resolution of 30 meters (98 feet) per pixel. The vertical direction is north-northeast.

The EO-1 spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. EO-1 is the satellite remote-sensing asset used by the Volcano Sensor Web developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which is being used to monitor this, and other, volcanic eruptions around the world.
Image
Visible (left) and infrared (right) images of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano, acquired April 17, 2010, from the Hyperion
instrument onboard NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. (NASA/JPL/EO-1 Mission/GSFC/Ashley Davies)

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NS: Blame the volcano trouble on sun and global warming

Post by bystander » Mon Apr 19, 2010 5:45 pm

Blame the volcano trouble on sun and global warming
New Scientist - 19 April 2010
Altered weather patterns may have made the disruption caused by volcanic ash from Iceland worse – and climate change could be partly to blame.

Ash-laden Arctic air is blowing over Europe because the usual westerly winds are being "blocked" by a high-pressure weather system, and such blockages may be more common now than they used to be. "We predict that the frequency and length of blocking events will increase in a warmer climate," says Christophe Cassou of the European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation in Toulouse, France.

A model of air flow developed by Cassou and colleague Éric Guilyardi shows that global warming will increase summer blocking events over Europe.

Blocking occurs when the jet stream, which carries winds from the west, is forced to slow down suddenly. "It catches up on itself and starts to meander," says Mike Lockwood from the University of Reading, UK. Sometimes the meanders double back on themselves, allowing north-easterly winds to fill the gap.

When solar activity is low this jet stream "pile-up" shifts eastwards across the Atlantic Ocean, bringing blocking events to Europe. The reasons seems to be that solar activity influences high-level stratospheric winds, and these eventually feed through to the troposphere, where the jet stream lies

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80beats: Iceland’s Volcanoes May Get Even Livelier

Post by bystander » Mon Apr 19, 2010 5:53 pm

In a Warmer World, Iceland’s Volcanoes May Get Even Livelier
Discover Blogs - 80beats - 19 April 2010
The volcanic eruption in Iceland that has disrupted air traffic in Europe is also a reminder that other volcanoes in the region could wake up if global warming continues unabated, experts say.

Scientists say that if large icecaps on the island melt, they’ll ease the pressure on the rocks beneath the surface. Lifting the weight off the rocks would allow for more magma production, which could set off other eruptions. Says volcanologist Freysteinn Sigmundsson: “Our work suggests that eventually there will be either somewhat larger eruptions or more frequent eruptions in Iceland in coming decades” [Scientific American].

Scientists clarified that while the current Eyjafjallajokull eruption occurred beneath a small glacier in Iceland, the explosion was not caused by global warming. The Eyjafjallajokull glacier is too small and light to have an impact on local geology, they say.

Sigmundsson and his colleague Carolina Pagli published research in 2008 estimating that the melting of about a tenth of Iceland’s biggest icecap, Vatnajokull, over the last century had caused the land to rise about an inch a year and led to the growth of a vast mass of magma, measuring about a third of a cubic mile, underground [The Telegraph]. The researchers explain that heated rocks can’t melt into magma when they’re under high pressure–for example, when they’re squashed underneath the weight of an icecap. But when the ice melts, the water trickles away, and the pressure eases off, the rocks can then melt into magma, creating prime conditions for volcanic eruptions. The researchers note that the end of the Ice Age 10,000 years ago was marked by an increase in volcanic activity in Iceland.

They warn that if ice sheets shrink, we can expect to see more eruptions in other frozen places like Alaska, Patagonia, and Antarctica. Says Pagli: “The effects would be biggest with ice-capped volcanoes…. If you remove a load that is big enough you will also have an effect at depths on magma production” [Scientific American].

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The real truth about Eyjafjallajokull!

Post by neufer » Fri Apr 23, 2010 12:01 am

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0046026/ wrote:
The Magnetic Monster (1953)
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
<<Howard Denker: It's hungry! It has to be fed constantly - or it will reach
out its magnetic arm and grab at anything within its reach and kill it.
It's monstrous, Stewart, monstrous. It grows bigger and bigger! >>
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UT: Shock Waves, Volcanic Bombs From Eyjafjallajokull

Post by bystander » Fri Apr 23, 2010 5:55 pm

Shock Waves, Volcanic Bombs From Eyjafjallajokull
Universe Today - 23 April 2010

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BicT13ec ... r_embedded[/youtube]
The volcano in Iceland keeps producing eye-popping effects. Now that the ash isn't spewing quite so dramatically,the mouth of the volcano itself is visible. Here's close-up aerial footage of the crater at Eyjafjallajokull, with glowing red lava and shockwaves of the eruptions in the ash cloud. Incredible.

If you haven't yet seen images taken by Astronomer Snaevarr Gudmundsson from Iceland, he was just a few kilometers away from the volcano last Saturday, at the height of the action — including lighting in the plume. So check them out.

There are many other great images on across the webs — take a look at The Daily Mail website of the eruption with a unique backdrop of a stunning aurora, pr these on Discovery News.

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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by BMAONE23 » Fri Apr 23, 2010 6:59 pm


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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by wonderboy » Sun Apr 25, 2010 11:10 am

BMAONE23 wrote:More STUNNING Pics

Bloody hell. Those are nice pictures. I love the lightning ones. Our planets powerful and scary, and I don't think we've heard the last from it either.

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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by owlice » Sun Apr 25, 2010 12:42 pm

BMAONE23, thank you for posting that link. Amazing shots! It brings home a bit the impact the eruption is having on the people (animals, vegetation) there.
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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by wonderboy » Sun Apr 25, 2010 3:00 pm

owlice wrote:BMAONE23, thank you for posting that link. Amazing shots! It brings home a bit the impact the eruption is having on the people (animals, vegetation) there.


Your right Owlice. What scares me though is that a lot of these people are running around without face masks on. Don't they know that prolonged exposure to volcanic ash can basically cause your lungs to turn to concrete? They should all be handed face masks free of charge by icelands government.

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YouTube: kadamatful's Channel

Post by bystander » Tue Apr 27, 2010 1:45 am

YouTube: kadamatful's Channel

This guy has some amazing footage of the volcano at Eyjafjallajökull. The change in the landscape from his first video on 22 March 2010 to his last a month later on 20 April 2010 is quite dramatic. His last is probably the most spectacular, you can watch the shock waves from the explosions travel through the ash and debris clouds. There are 17 videos in all.

Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull (22 March 2010)
Daylight video of the eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, which started on 21. march, 2010
Click to play embedded YouTube video.
First pictures from the new crater at Eyjafjalajökull (20 April 2010)
Close-up footage of the crater at Eyjafjallajökull. You can see red glowing lava as well
as volcanic bombs flying through the air. If you watch carefully you can even see the
shock waves of the eruptions in the ash cloud.
Click to play embedded YouTube video.

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Eyjafjallajökull at it, again!

Post by bystander » Sat May 08, 2010 5:15 pm


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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by neufer » Mon May 10, 2010 2:06 am

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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by bystander » Thu May 20, 2010 12:53 am

More Up-Close Images of Eyjafjallajokull Volcano and Its Effect on Life in Iceland
Universe Today - 19 May 2010
Astronomer Snaevarr Gudmundsson from Iceland, who shared his incredible close-up images of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano with Universe Today back in April, has made another trek out to visit the region near the volcano. "Under the ash clouds the world takes strange turn," he wrote in an email. "It is hard for residents to live in the neighborhood under these circumstances. When wind turns the ash clouds over their home village it gets unbearable to stay outside. It is absolutely essential to keep mask and goggles on to prevent sore throat and eyes filled with fine grained ash. The fine grained ash fills up every pore and penetrates into houses through every weakness, like joints around doors and windows, even though it is very well sealed. As you see where the bus is near the grill house at Vik (see below) a bad ash storm was making otherwise normal life awful."

See more of Gudmundsson's images of the volcano and how it is affecting life in Iceland.

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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by wonderboy » Sun May 23, 2010 1:23 pm

Ahhhhhhhhhhh I knew it....

The devils handy work....



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Re: Fimmvörduháls pass west of Eyjafjallajökull

Post by bystander » Mon May 24, 2010 8:58 pm

No activity at Iceland volcano, eruption could be over
PhysOrg - 24 May 2010
Iceland's Eyjafjoell volcano is no longer in activity, a geophysicist said Sunday, raising hopes the eruption which has heavily disrupted European flights for more than a month could be over.