"strange quark stars."

Comments and questions about the APOD on the main view screen.
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"strange quark stars."

Post by harry » Mon Jan 30, 2006 6:38 am

"strange quark stars."

see link

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/a ... 20410.html

Evidence Found for New Form of Ultra-Dense Matter

For months i have been discussing this type of ultra-dense matter.

I discussed quarks and neutrons being compacted to an ultra dense matter.


I could be wrong
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Post by harry » Sat Feb 04, 2006 9:25 pm

This ultra dense matter may also be found in BlackHoles.

If this is so imagine the possiblities.

To study Black Holes
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Out , Out , Damned Quark ! bemoaned the King of Space&

Post by kovil » Sun Feb 05, 2006 10:32 pm

Harry,

I wrote a post yesterday but was not signed in and it got lost somehow, I was too tired to rewrite. I got dropped by my ISP and after reconnecting I lost my signed in status. How frustrating by the details I failed to notice !

Anyway, the gist was that as gravity increases, the neutron pairs change in the way that; the protons the neutrons are formed from, have a disassociation of some kind with their binding energy, because as the ratio of space to time has changed to such an extent; that the protons awareness of all the rest of the protons in the awareable universe has changed. Some of them at the former frindges have now become unawarable. This changes the rest mass of the protons. As a result the sphere the mass can entertain under gravity changes.

What determines the rest mass of the proton is its relationship to all the other protons in its awareable universe.
What determines the energy density of the electron is its size in relationship to the awareable universe.

Somehow the ratio of space to time is altered and thus changes in the local absolute gravity factor change accordingly and also the rest mass and energy density factors migrate slightly. I suspect another house of cards resistance factor is conjured up to prevent further unrestrained collapse by gravity.
(if it doesn't , we wouldn't be discussing this !!! )
Or there is some kind of a 'governor' operating in principle to steady the universe from oscilating out of ballance and becoming untenable, or falling off to one side of this razors edge we are eternally walking.

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Post by harry » Mon Feb 06, 2006 10:06 am

The ratio of time and space.

Please explain
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Re: Out , Out , Damned Quark ! bemoaned the King of Space&

Post by makc » Mon Feb 06, 2006 11:37 am

kovil wrote:the ratio of space to time
let's illustrate: it takes me 1 hour to cover a distance of 5 kilometers. hence my ratio of space to time is 5km/h. it is called "speed" :D

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Could A Quark By Any Other Name, Be So Small

Post by kovil » Mon Feb 06, 2006 5:44 pm

Harry,

Ratio of Space to Time; mainly is concerned with the speed of light.

The distance light goes in one year is one light year.
Thus a ratio of one to one is extant. Time to Space.
This is why when we see an event, we see it when it happened; for us.
Not for when it happened, for the event.

Our information about things arrives when it happened in space, in a direct one to one corresponcence. Red or Blue Shift tells us other information about the event, but it still is in real time.

Watching someone chopping wood on the other side of a small valley, the light arrives when the event takes place in SpaceTime. The sound however arrives in a delay mode. So kinetic event information arrives not in real time with the event happening, as light information does.

This is the conceptual idea of how electromagnetic information is in a 1:1 SpaceTime Ratio or Ratio of Space to Time.

Viewing it this way leads to a different way of seeing how things are operating in the universe, and maybe that is a more helpful way to think about it, for working out other answers that are perplexing us, and make the solution easier to find or conceptualize.

(see the 'what is momentum/inertia' in the Asterisk Cafe for additional thoughts.)

So instead of thinking light has a 'speed' ; think of it as not a speed at all, but a Ratio of Space to Time.

I found this makes relativistic concepts much clearer to grasp.
It is a bit of a leap into something new.

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Post by harry » Mon Feb 06, 2006 8:45 pm

Hello Kovil and mac
I agree
Good,,,,,,,,,,,I thought you may be talking along different lines.
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Quarkology

Post by kovil » Sun Apr 09, 2006 2:49 pm

Harry,

Did you see this APJ article? It's in the free section now (over 3 years old).

Gamma-Ray Bursts from Delayed Collapse of Neutron Stars to Quark Matter Stars

Z. Berezhiani ,1 I. Bombaci ,2 A. Drago ,3 F. Frontera ,3,4 and A. Lavagno 5

Received 2002 September 12; accepted 2002 December 2

ABSTRACT

We propose a model to explain how a gamma-ray burst can take place days or years after a supernova explosion. Our model is based on the conversion of a pure hadronic star (neutron star) into a star made at least in part of deconfined quark matter. The conversion process can be delayed if the surface tension at the interface between hadronic and deconfined quark matter phases is taken into account. The nucleation time (i.e., the time to form a critical-size drop of quark matter) can be extremely long if the mass of the star is small. Via mass accretion the nucleation time can be dramatically reduced and the star is finally converted into the stable configuration. A huge amount of energy, on the order of 10^52 to 10^53 ergs, is released during the conversion process and can produce a powerful gamma-ray burst. The delay between the supernova explosion generating the metastable neutron star and the new collapse can explain the delay inferred in GRB 990705 and in GRB 011211.


1. INTRODUCTION

The discovery of a transient (13 s) absorption feature in the prompt emission of the 40 s gamma-ray burst (GRB) of 1999 July 5 (GRB 990705) (Amati et al. 2000) and the evidence of emission features in the afterglow of several GRBs (Piro et al. 1999; Yoshida et al. 1999; Piro et al. 2000; Antonelli et al. 2000; Reeves et al. 2002) have stimulated the interpretation of these characteristics in the context of the fireball model of GRBs. Amati et al. (2000) attribute the transient absorption feature of GRB 990705 (energy released 10^53 ergs, assuming isotropy) to a redshifted K edge of iron contained in an environment not far from the GRB site ( 0.1 pc) and crossed by the GRB emission. They estimate an iron abundance typical of a supernova (SN) environment (AFe 75) and a time delay of about 10 years between the SN explosion and the GRB event. Lazzati et al. (2001) give a different interpretation of the absorption feature, in terms of a redshifted resonance scattering feature of H-like iron (transition 1s2p, Erest = 6.927 keV) in an inhomogeneous high-velocity outflow, but invoke a iron-rich environment as well, due to a preceding SN explosion, even if a shorter time delay ( 1 yr) between SN and GRB is inferred. An SN explosion preceding the GRB event is also inferred for explaining the properties of the emission features in the X-ray afterglow spectrum of GRB 000214 (Antonelli et al. 2000) and GRB 991216 (Piro et al. 2000). In the latter case, the possibility cannot be excluded that the SN explosion occurred days or weeks before the GRB (Rees & Mészáros 2000). Reeves et al. (2002), to explain the multiple emission features observed in the afterglow spectrum of GRB 011211 (time duration of 270 s, isotropic gamma-ray energy of 5 × 10^52 ergs), invoke an SN explosion preceding the GRB event by 4 days (in the isotropic limit, a minimum of 10 hr). Even if other interpretations for the afterglow emission lines are possible without invoking a previous SN explosion (e.g., Rees & Mészáros 2000; Mészáros & Rees 2001), this explosion seems to be the most likely way to explain the transient absorption line observed from GRB 990705 (Böttcher, Fryer, & Dermer 2002). In conclusion, the previous observations suggest that, at least for a certain number of GRBs, an SN explosion happened before the GRB, with a time interval between the two events ranging from a few hours to a few years. In this context, an attractive scenario is that described by the supranova model (Vietri & Stella 1998) for GRBs. In this model, the GRB is the result of the collapse to a black hole (BH) of a supramassive fast rotating neutron star (NS), as it loses angular momentum. According to this model the NS is produced in the SN explosion preceding the GRB event. The initial barionic mass MB of the NS is assumed to be above the maximum baryonic mass for nonrotating configurations. However, as also noticed by Böttcher et al. (2002), on the basis of realistic calculations of collapsing NS (Fryer & Woosley 1998), in these collapses too much baryonic material is ejected and thus the energy output is expected to be too small to produce GRBs. Even if the introduction of magnetic fields or beaming could overcome this limitation, in any case, the GRB duration from an NS collapse should be very short ( 1 s), much shorter than that observed from GRB 990705.

In this paper, we propose an alternative model to explain the existence of GRBs associated with previous SN explosions. In this model, unlike the supranova model, the NS collapse to BH is replaced with the conversion from a metastable, purely hadronic star (neutron star) into a more compact star in which deconfined quark matter (QM) is present. This possibility has already been discussed in the literature (Cheng & Dai 1996; Bombaci & Datta 2000; Wang et al. 2000; Ouyed, Dey, & Dey 2002). The new and crucial idea we introduce here is the metastability of the purely hadronic star due to the existence of a nonvanishing surface tension at the interface separating hadronic matter from quark matter. The mean lifetime of the metastable NS can then be connected to the delay between the supernova explosion and the GRB. As we shall see, in our model we can easily obtain a burst lasting tens of seconds, in agreement with the observations. The order of magnitude of the energy released is also appropriate.


=======

Sounds like your superdense matter has proponents.
APJ has lots of intense articles and Papers.
Thanks for the heads-up on all of this Harry.

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MHD and extragalactic jets

Post by kovil » Sun Apr 09, 2006 3:10 pm

Here's another good one on MHD accelerating electrons in galactic jets.


Lepton Acceleration by Relativistic Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection

D. A. Larrabee

R. V. E. Lovelace and M. M. Romanova

ABSTRACT

We have calculated self-consistent equilibria of a collisionless relativistic electron-positron gas in the vicinity of a magnetic X-point. For the considered conditions, pertinent to extragalactic jets, we find that leptons are accelerated up to Lorentz factors 0 = eB0L2/mc2 1, where B0 is the typical magnetic field strength, E0/B0, with E0 the reconnection electric field, L is the length scale of the magnetic field, and 12. The acceleration is due to the dominance of the electric field over the magnetic field in a region around the X-point. The distribution function of the accelerated leptons is found to be approximately dn/d -1 for 0. The apparent distribution function may be steeper than -1 due to the distribution of 0 values and/or the radiative losses. Self-consistent equilibria are found only for plasma inflow rates to the X-point less than a critical value.

Subject headings: acceleration of particlesgalaxies: jetsmagnetic fieldsMHDplasmas

1. INTRODUCTION

The observed radiation of most large-scale extragalactic jets is due to incoherent synchrotron radiation. In a number of sources, M87 and 3C 273, for instance, the radiation lifetime of the electrons (and possibly positrons) is much less than the transit time from the central source (Felten 1968). Thus, there must be mechanisms for the electron "reacceleration."

Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for the reacceleration of the electrons. These include the Fermi mechanism of particle acceleration (Pacholczyk & Scott 1976), Fermi acceleration in shock waves (Krimsky 1977; Axford, Leer, & Skadron 1978; Bell 1977, 1978; Blandford & Ostriker 1978), stochastic electric field acceleration (Eilek & Hughes 1990), and whistler-wave acceleration (Melrose 1974). The effectiveness of the Fermi mechanism and stochastic fields in accelerating electrons is unknown (Blandford & Eichler 1987; Eilek & Hughes 1990; Jones & Ellison 1991). Resistive tearing has been discussed as a means of producing neutral layers that can accelerate electrons (Königl & Choudhuri 1985; Choudhuri & Königl 1986). Reconnection as a mechanism for accelerating electrons has been discussed by a number of authors (Blandford 1983; Begelman, Blandford, & Rees 1984; Browne 1985; Ferrari 1984; Norman 1985; Kirchner 1988; Lesch 1991; Romanova & Lovelace 1992). The acceleration of electrons by long-wavelength electromagnetic waves trapped in the boundary layer of a jet has been discussed by Bisnovatyi-Kogan & Lovelace (1995).

The reconnection of magnetic fields at a neutral point as described by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) has been studied extensively. It has been shown that the neutral lines can evolve into current sheets (Syrovatskii 1971). Resistive MHD simulations of reconnection by Biskamp (1986) show a strong tendency to form current sheets.

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Post by harry » Mon Apr 10, 2006 1:47 am

Hello Kovil

Thank you mate.

Love this info.
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Post by harry » Wed Apr 26, 2006 6:17 am

Hello All

With a head cold I copied thus info.
I'm off to bed

Ultra dense Plasma matter

http://plasmadictionary.llnl.gov/ter...age=list&ABC=Q
Term: Quark-gluon plasma
Definition:
"A state of matter in which quarks and gluons, the fundamental constituents of matter, are no longer confined within the dimensions of the nucleon, but free to move around over a volume in which a high enough temperature and/or density prevails. This type of plasma has recently, 2/2000, been observed indirectly by the European laboratory for particle physics, CERN. These plasmas result in effective quark masses which are much larger than the actual masses. Calculations for the transition temperature to this new state give values between 140 and 180 MeV. This is more than 10,000 times the nominal fusion plasma temperature of 10keV. 150 MeV is the characteristic energy of a particle in a plasma at roughly 1.5 trillion Kelvin. This corresponds to an energy density in the neighborhood of seven times that of nuclear matter. Temperatures and energy densities above these values existed in the early universe during the first few microseconds after the Big Bang. "


http://columbia-physics.net/faculty/gyulassy_main.htm

Professor: Miklos Gyulassy

Research
quote:"I head the nuclear theory group at Columbia. Our work concentrates on the physics of ultra-dense nuclear matter, called the quark-gluon plasma. Current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC at BNL require the development of detailed parton/ hadron transport theory in order to interpret the data and to test specific signatures that can reveal the physical properties of this new state of matter. We have developed new techniques to solve ultra-relativistic non-linear Boltzmann equations and relativistic hydrodynamics to study collective flow signatures, such as elliptic transverse flow at RHIC. In addition, these transport models are used to predict pion interferometry correlations that probe the global freeze-out space-time geometry of high energy nuclear reactions. Recently we concentrate on the problem of non-abelian radiative energy loss and its application as a novel tomographic tool to study the density evolution in the expanding gluon plasma on times scales ~10^-23 sec. We predicted that high transverse momentum jets of hadrons produced in nuclear reactions should be strongly quenched by radiative energy loss induced by the high opacity of the produced plasma. This prediction has been recently confirmed by the PHENIX and STAR experiments at RHIC, and we have deduced from the quenching pattern that gluon densities about 100 times greater than in ground state nuclei have been attained in Au+Au reactions at Ecm = 200 AGeV. At such high densities matter is predicted via lattice QCD to be in the deconfined phase. We continue to refine and extend the theory of jet tomography in order to predict the quenching pattern of heavy quarks as well as high pT correlations of monojets. Another area of interest is the dynamics of baryon number transport and hyperonization at RHIC. Preliminary data provide possible evidence of novel topological gluon junction dynamics that we first tested on data at lower SPS/CERN energies."
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Post by harry » Mon May 01, 2006 5:57 am

hello all

I had this link and found it

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap020414.html

I hope its not a repeat

These strange stars are coming out of the woodwork
Now we know of
normal stars as so to speak
Brown dwarf stars
white dwarf star
neutron stars
quark stars
strange quark stars

Preon stars (theory),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,has anybody got info on this cuty.

leading up to small black holes,,,,,,,,,,,,,,stella black holes
leading up to black holes of a million or so sun mass
leading up to super black holes a few billion sun mass.

leading up to wopper black holes in a galaxy far far away.

This is so interesting its making my head spin.
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Post by harry » Mon May 01, 2006 6:02 am

Hello Kovil

Thanks for the heads up.
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Post by Qev » Mon May 01, 2006 3:23 pm

Here is a link to a wikipedia article discussing the theoretical class of particles known as preons. Currently, this class of theories has very little support, as none of the theories are able to predict observational data that has been collected.

Regarding quark stars and strange quark stars, I believe the two terms are synonymous; 'quark star' is just one word shorter to say. :) I've also heard them termed just 'strange stars' as well.
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Post by harry » Tue May 02, 2006 1:52 pm

Hello Qev

No,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Strange as it may seem, but strange quarks are different.
As a matter of fact there is six know quarks.

see link

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... rk.html#c6

Why "Quark"?

The name "quark" was taken by Murray Gell-Mann from the book "Finnegan's Wake" by James Joyce. The line "Three quarks for Muster Mark..." appears in the fanciful book. Gell-Mann received the 1969 Nobel Prize for his work in classifying elementary particles.

Quarks and Leptons are the building blocks which build up matter, i.e., they are seen as the "elementary particles". In the present standard model, there are six "flavors" of quarks. They can successfully account for all known mesons and baryons (over 200). The most familiar baryons are the proton and neutron, which are each constructed from up and down quarks. Quarks are observed to occur only in combinations of two quarks (mesons), three quarks (baryons), and the recently discovered particles with five quarks (pentaquark).

The up and down quarks are the most common and least massive quarks, being the constituents of protons and neutrons and thus of most ordinary matter.

In 1947 during a study of cosmic ray interactions, a product of a proton collision with a nucleus was found to live for much longer time than expected: 10-10 seconds instead of the expected 10-23 seconds! This particle was named the lambda particle (Λ0) and the property which caused it to live so long was dubbed "strangeness" and that name stuck to be the name of one of the quarks from which the lambda particle is constructed. The lambda is a baryon which is made up of three quarks: an up, a down and a strange quark.


In 1974 a meson called the J/Psi particle was discovered. With a mass of 3100 MeV, over three times that of the proton, this particle was the first example of another quark, called the charm quark. The J/Psi is made up of a charm-anticharm quark pair.

Convincing evidence for the observation of the top quark was reported by Fermilab 's Tevatron facility in April 1995. The evidence was found in the collision products of 0.9 TeV protons with equally energetic antiprotons in the proton-antiproton collider


In 1977, an experimental group at Fermilab led by Leon Lederman discovered a new resonance at 9.4 GeV/c^2 which was interpreted as a bottom-antibottom quark pair and called the Upsilon meson
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Post by Pete » Tue May 02, 2006 2:37 pm

Right, harry, not all "quarks" are "strange quarks". Nevertheless, "strange quark star", "quark star", and "strange star" are synonymous terms according to the "Quark Star" Wikipedia article and the external links found within.

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Post by harry » Wed May 03, 2006 5:56 am

Hello Pete

I understand,,,,,,smile,,,,,,,,,,,, but it sounds quarky to me.

I just added that info for others to understand.
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so...............

Post by ta152h0 » Thu May 04, 2006 9:55 pm

Soooooooooooo Harry,
that makes you the " Chief Understander "
pass me an ice cold one :)
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Post by makc » Fri May 05, 2006 6:30 am

tah, I think you drink too much.

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Post by harry » Fri May 05, 2006 10:59 am

Hello All

Even if I study cosmology for another 10 years I will still be knowing very little.

As I read more I feel I know less.

Why is that?

Darn,,,,,,,,,,,,,I better read less and know more.
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hi

Post by ta152h0 » Fri May 05, 2006 9:01 pm

makc

"pass the ice cold one " has become part of my signature. I don't drink, i just find humor in this.
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Post by harry » Sun May 07, 2006 1:32 pm

Hello All

Cosmologists put compact stars, quarks to preon (theory) and black holes as part of dark matter.

They also say that 99% of all matter is in Plasma.

What do you think.
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Post by orin stepanek » Fri May 19, 2006 1:44 pm

Harry! Here is another link to your quark stars.
http://archives.cnn.com/2002/TECH/space ... index.html
Supposedly they are in a state between that of a neutron star and a black hole. If quarks are the building blocks of matter than there ought to be more of them out there.
Orin

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Post by harry » Fri May 19, 2006 10:31 pm

Hello Orin

Thanks Orin

I think there is one more step before a blackhole is formed.

The preons that make up quarks are more compacted to form the theoretical preon star.

You can put our sun in a ball 300mm dia.
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Post by Qev » Sat May 20, 2006 1:33 pm

I'm afraid it's not possible to have the mass of the sun compressed into an object 300mm in diameter and have it remain stable. Once the total mass of the Sun gets compacted within it's own Schwartzchild radius (which is 3km), you have a black hole; nothing can prevent its further collapse.

Even if it were somehow stable, it would still be inside an event horizon, and would technically be a black hole; it would behave exactly the same.
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