APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

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APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by APOD Robot » Sat Oct 15, 2022 4:06 am

Image GRB 221009A

Explanation: Gamma-ray burst GRB 221009A likely signals the birth of a new black hole, formed at the core of a collapsing star long ago in the distant universe. The extremely powerful blast is depicted in this animated gif constructed using data from the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. Fermi captured the data at gamma-ray energies, detecting photons with over 100 million electron volts. In comparison visible light photons have energies of about 2 electron volts. A steady, high energy gamma-ray glow from the plane of our Milky Way galaxy runs diagonally through the 20 degree wide frame at the left, while the transient gamma-ray flash from GRB 221009A appears at center and then fades. One of the brightest gamma-ray bursts ever detected GRB 221009A is also close as far as gamma-ray bursts go, but still lies about 2 billion light-years away. In low Earth orbit Fermi's Large Area Telescope recorded gamma-ray photons from the burst for more than 10 hours as high-energy radiation from GRB 221009A swept over planet Earth last Sunday, October 9.

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DL MARTIN

Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by DL MARTIN » Sat Oct 15, 2022 5:54 am

Thanks for the temporal context "... formed at the core of a collapsing star long ago in the distant universe" with 2 billion light years away qualifying distant as 2 billion years ago. This perspective enhances my sense of privilege in observing such astronomical marvels.

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by orin stepanek » Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:38 pm

LAT_221009A_burst_opt_1080.gif
Some pretty powerful energy out there! Some even went over Earth!
Are Gamma rays similar to X-rays? :?
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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by Ann » Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:41 pm

I'm assuming that we are seeing this gamma ray burst "in real time", so that the animated gif really shows us how long its bright phase lasted.

There are what appears to be two distinct gamma ray sources in the disk of the Milky Way (at mid and lower left). What are those things? Could they be gamma-ray-bright background galaxies?

As can be expected, I have a problem with the glaring red coloration of of the gamma rays.

I know, Chris. I know. You know I have a problem with these things. I know I shouldn't complain, since gamma rays are (obviously) colorless in themselves, and they are just colored here to make them more, I guess, more pleasant (or interesting) to look at (than if this image was shown in black and white).

So I shouldn't complain. I guess I'll have to content myself with gnashing my teeth.

Click to play embedded YouTube video.

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by Ann » Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:48 pm

orin stepanek wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:38 pm LAT_221009A_burst_opt_1080.gif
Some pretty powerful energy out there! Some even went over Earth!
Are Gamma rays similar to X-rays? :?
Nope. Gamma rays are much more powerful. They are, I guess, the most energetic electromagnetic wavelengths that we have a name for.

(As for what we should have called the wavelengths that filled the freshly newborn, just out of inflation, circa grapefruit-sized Universe that existed circa 14 billion years ago, I don't know.)

And I apologize for having fun with the lettering of your question and making it look, I guess, a bit ultraviolet. :wink:

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Tszabeau

Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by Tszabeau » Sat Oct 15, 2022 2:03 pm

Is this just one event? It looks like two bursts to me. One from the bright central newborn object and the other from the object within the plane of the Milky Way towards the lower left of frame. Might they be related?

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by orin stepanek » Sat Oct 15, 2022 2:07 pm

Ann wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:48 pm
orin stepanek wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:38 pm LAT_221009A_burst_opt_1080.gif
Some pretty powerful energy out there! Some even went over Earth!
Are Gamma rays similar to X-rays? :?
Nope. Gamma rays are much more powerful. They are, I guess, the most energetic electromagnetic wavelengths that we have a name for.

(As for what we should have called the wavelengths that filled the freshly newborn, just out of inflation, circa grapefruit-sized Universe that existed circa 14 billion years ago, I don't know.)

And I apologize for having fun with the lettering of your question and making it look, I guess, a bit ultraviolet. :wink:

Ann
I was referring to weather or not they work the same way as they are capable of passing through materials! Could we make machines that we could use to take pictures of interior views of objects? Why not??? :wink:
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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by Fred the Cat » Sat Oct 15, 2022 4:37 pm

For the records, :ohno: let's hope they only arrive from beyond. :roll:
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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by Ann » Sat Oct 15, 2022 4:51 pm

orin stepanek wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 2:07 pm
Ann wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:48 pm
orin stepanek wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:38 pm LAT_221009A_burst_opt_1080.gif
Some pretty powerful energy out there! Some even went over Earth!
Are Gamma rays similar to X-rays? :?
Nope. Gamma rays are much more powerful. They are, I guess, the most energetic electromagnetic wavelengths that we have a name for.

(As for what we should have called the wavelengths that filled the freshly newborn, just out of inflation, circa grapefruit-sized Universe that existed circa 14 billion years ago, I don't know.)

And I apologize for having fun with the lettering of your question and making it look, I guess, a bit ultraviolet. :wink:

Ann
I was referring to weather or not they work the same way as they are capable of passing through materials! Could we make machines that we could use to take pictures of interior views of objects? Why not??? :wink:
Well, with the punch they pack, they must be better able than X-rays to penetrate all sorts of materials. But gamma rays are very dangerous, and almost certainly hard to produce. Let's stick with X-rays!

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by De58te » Sat Oct 15, 2022 5:35 pm

I find it interesting how the mega large universe mimics the micro world we know. At first I thought the Apod alternating red lights reminds me of the red flashing lights at a train crossing. And then the description of the long track at left is a gamma train along our Milky Way Galaxy. Except this gamma train passed by 2 billion years ago.

heehaw

Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by heehaw » Sat Oct 15, 2022 6:44 pm

Great! Here it is, with a label added by me: https://henry.pha.jhu.edu/blast.gif

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by johnnydeep » Sat Oct 15, 2022 8:28 pm

DL MARTIN wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 5:54 am Thanks for the temporal context "... formed at the core of a collapsing star long ago in the distant universe" with 2 billion light years away qualifying distant as 2 billion years ago. This perspective enhances my sense of privilege in observing such astronomical marvels.
You added the temporal context yourself. :-) As per usual, a light year is a measure of distance not time.
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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by johnnydeep » Sat Oct 15, 2022 8:30 pm

Ann wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:41 pm I'm assuming that we are seeing this gamma ray burst "in real time", so that the animated gif really shows us how long its bright phase lasted.

There are what appears to be two distinct gamma ray sources in the disk of the Milky Way (at mid and lower left). What are those things? Could they be gamma-ray-bright background galaxies?

...

Ann
I assumed that the large one is just the center of the MW?
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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by johnnydeep » Sat Oct 15, 2022 8:49 pm

Ann wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:48 pm
orin stepanek wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:38 pm LAT_221009A_burst_opt_1080.gif
Some pretty powerful energy out there! Some even went over Earth!
Are Gamma rays similar to X-rays? :?
Nope. Gamma rays are much more powerful. They are, I guess, the most energetic electromagnetic wavelengths that we have a name for.

(As for what we should have called the wavelengths that filled the freshly newborn, just out of inflation, circa grapefruit-sized Universe that existed circa 14 billion years ago, I don't know.)
...
Ann
Do you mean the light that is now the glow of the CMB? Or something more powerful that occurred before that? (Rereading your post, yes, that's what you mean!) The electromagnetic spectrum tops out at gamma rays, which are photons above a frequency 30 exahertz (124000 Ev - using the calculator at https://www.unitsconverters.com/en/Hert ... 511-3462-1). As for giving higher energy photons a name, I was going to suggest delta waves, but that seems to be taken: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delta_wave

"Ludicrous Rays" perhaps?
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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by johnnydeep » Sat Oct 15, 2022 8:54 pm

So, these ultra high energy gamma rays passed over the Earth but were presumably blocked by the atmosphere, thereby protecting us hapless humans here on the surface. But these same rays also passed through (or impacted) satellites and the ISS and obviously also the orbiting Fermi telescope that detected tham. Is there a risk of damage to electronics or to human DNA for all the stuff in orbit? Also, how energetic would gamma rays have to be to be able to penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and reach the surface?
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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by orin stepanek » Sat Oct 15, 2022 9:01 pm

Ann wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 4:51 pm
orin stepanek wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 2:07 pm
Ann wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:48 pm

Nope. Gamma rays are much more powerful. They are, I guess, the most energetic electromagnetic wavelengths that we have a name for.

(As for what we should have called the wavelengths that filled the freshly newborn, just out of inflation, circa grapefruit-sized Universe that existed circa 14 billion years ago, I don't know.)

And I apologize for having fun with the lettering of your question and making it look, I guess, a bit ultraviolet.

Ann
I was referring to weather or not they work the same way as they are capable of passing through materials! Could we make machines that we could use to take pictures of interior views of objects? Why not???
Well, with the punch they pack, they must be better able than X-rays to penetrate all sorts of materials. But gamma rays are very dangerous, and almost certainly hard to produce. Let's stick with X-rays!

Ann
Who knows what future man can do with them? :mrgreen: :lol2: :shock: Don't take me too serious Ann; I have a huge imagination about the Future!
Orin

Smile today; tomorrow's another day!

DL MARTIN

Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by DL MARTIN » Sat Oct 15, 2022 11:28 pm

So 2 billion light years away has nothing to do with time? And light from the Sun takes no time to get here!

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by bystander » Sat Oct 15, 2022 11:53 pm

DL MARTIN wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 11:28 pm So 2 billion light years away has nothing to do with time? And light from the Sun takes no time to get here!
Correct, a measure of distance has nothing to do with time.
Perhaps if we changed 2 billion light years to 612,783,092 parsecs you wouldn't be so confused.

Incorrect, it takes about 8.3 minutes for light from the Sun to reach the Earth.
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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by VictorBorun » Sun Oct 16, 2022 1:13 am

Tszabeau wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 2:03 pm Is this just one event? It looks like two bursts to me. One from the bright central newborn object and the other from the object within the plane of the Milky Way towards the lower left of frame. Might they be related?
The ɣ burst in the center must be just one point-like event in our sky. In visible light it looked so, in a time lapse by Swift’s Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope
Image

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by Chris Peterson » Sun Oct 16, 2022 4:14 am

orin stepanek wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:38 pm LAT_221009A_burst_opt_1080.gif
Some pretty powerful energy out there! Some even went over Earth!
Are Gamma rays similar to X-rays? :?
They can be the same. Gamma rays represent the shorter wavelength end of hard x-rays, or if you prefer, hard x-rays represent the longer wavelength end of gamma rays. In other words, there is a large overlap between the two, where the terms could be used interchangeably.

Medical x-rays are outside the range of what is called gamma radiation, although gamma radiation therapy might be considered a form of x-ray therapy. Wavelengths are precise; the names we give ranges are somewhat arbitrary.
Chris

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by Chris Peterson » Sun Oct 16, 2022 4:17 am

DL MARTIN wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 5:54 am Thanks for the temporal context "... formed at the core of a collapsing star long ago in the distant universe" with 2 billion light years away qualifying distant as 2 billion years ago. This perspective enhances my sense of privilege in observing such astronomical marvels.
Except that is of almost no use. What we're seeing is the end stage of a short lived massive star. It would look substantially the same no matter how far away it was, other than having a lower apparent intensity.
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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by Ann » Sun Oct 16, 2022 4:51 am

johnnydeep wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 8:54 pm So, these ultra high energy gamma rays passed over the Earth but were presumably blocked by the atmosphere, thereby protecting us hapless humans here on the surface. But these same rays also passed through (or impacted) satellites and the ISS and obviously also the orbiting Fermi telescope that detected tham. Is there a risk of damage to electronics or to human DNA for all the stuff in orbit? Also, how energetic would gamma rays have to be to be able to penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and reach the surface?
Worrying that we are going to be smote by a death star gamma ray burst from outer space is pointless. And unnecessary.

Years ago, I built an extremely simple model of the inner solar system, using little colorful cotton balls, 0.02 meters in diameter, and a round piece of cloth, 2 meters in diameter, and had people help me put them at correct distances from one another - the "Earth" was at 200 meters from the "Sun", while Mars was at 300 meters (I don't remember the distances to Mercury and Venus) - and I was actually flabbergasted at how far away these things were from one another, and how absolutely incredibly tiny the Earth was compared to all the emptiness around it.

And that was only the inner solar system. Our own cosmic back yard.

If you want to get a "feel" for how big the solar system out to Pluto is - forget the Oort Cloud!!! - then I recommend this site, A Tediously Accurate Scale Model of the Solar System. Believe me, it is tedious. The distances are so vast, so you just keep scrolling and scrolling, yet the planets are so small, that you have to scroll slowly not to miss them. Have fun scrolling!!

But here's my point. We all know that the Universe is vast, but many of us still think that death rays and explosions and other things happening "out there" will affect us. The chances of a gamma ray burst actually making a bulls-eye strike on the Earth (or the Sun) are not zilch, but they are very, very, very, very, very (repeat the word until you get tired) close to zilch.

That said, because there is such a huge number of galaxies out there, some galaxies will be unlucky:

NASA wrote:
A powerful jet from a super massive black hole is blasting a nearby galaxy, according to new findings from NASA observatories. This never-before witnessed galactic violence may have a profound effect on planets in the jet's path and trigger a burst of star formation in its destructive wake.
...
The effect of the jet on the companion galaxy is likely to be substantial, because the galaxies in 3C321 are extremely close at a distance of only about 20,000 light years apart. They lie approximately the same distance as Earth is from the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

A bright spot in the Very Large Array and MERLIN images shows where the jet has struck the side of the galaxy, dissipating some of the jet's energy. The collision disrupted and deflected the jet.

Another unique aspect of the discovery in 3C321 is how relatively short-lived this event is on a cosmic time scale. Features seen in the Very Large Array and Chandra images indicate that the jet began impacting the galaxy about one million years ago, a small fraction of the system's lifetime. This means such an alignment is quite rare in the nearby universe, making 3C321 an important opportunity to study such a phenomenon.

You can watch a video of the Death Star Galaxy here:

Click to play embedded YouTube video.

But this won't happen to us. You can rest easy.

Then again, space is an incredibly hostile environment. If we ever send people to Mars, are they going to be affected by all sorts of radiation on their long journey there? Indeed they are. Are they going to arrive on Mars spry and healthy? I very much doubt it.

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by orin stepanek » Sun Oct 16, 2022 12:36 pm

Chris Peterson wrote: Sun Oct 16, 2022 4:14 am
orin stepanek wrote: Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:38 pm LAT_221009A_burst_opt_1080.gif
Some pretty powerful energy out there! Some even went over Earth!
Are Gamma rays similar to X-rays? :?
They can be the same. Gamma rays represent the shorter wavelength end of hard x-rays, or if you prefer, hard x-rays represent the longer wavelength end of gamma rays. In other words, there is a large overlap between the two, where the terms could be used interchangeably.

Medical x-rays are outside the range of what is called gamma radiation, although gamma radiation therapy might be considered a form of x-ray therapy. Wavelengths are precise; the names we give ranges are somewhat arbitrary.
Thanks for the clarification Chris!
Orin

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by Norman.B » Sun Oct 16, 2022 7:26 pm

Excuse the ignorance in this, my first post, but I was unaware there were other verified universes. I was under the impression that the universe we reside in consisted in everything. Are there for sure other verified (not just hypothetical) universes out there? And how does one verify another universe? Sorry, I know nothing about this subject. I'm just a random ecologist. Cheers.

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Re: APOD: GRB 221009A (2022 Oct 15)

Post by johnnydeep » Sun Oct 16, 2022 9:10 pm

Norman.B wrote: Sun Oct 16, 2022 7:26 pm Excuse the ignorance in this, my first post, but I was unaware there were other verified universes. I was under the impression that the universe we reside in consisted in everything. Are there for sure other verified (not just hypothetical) universes out there? And how does one verify another universe? Sorry, I know nothing about this subject. I'm just a random ecologist. Cheers.
Theories about there being "other universes" are, at this point, still just that: theories. And in theory they might even be detectable. Again, only in theory. For some lazy afternoon reading, you could do worse than to start with this Wikipedia article about "The Multiverse" - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiverse.

But in a purely philosophical and linguistic sense, the entire set of hierarchies of universes, which merely categorizes "everything that is", could still be called The Universe. Or "The Multiverse" if you like, to distinguish it from the one and only universe that we are currently aware of.
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