APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

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APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by APOD Robot » Wed Jun 01, 2016 4:10 am

Image Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands

Explanation: What star created this huge expanding puffball? Featured here is the first expansion movie ever created for Tycho's supernova remnant, the result of a stellar explosion first recorded over 400 years ago by the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe. The 2-second video is a time-lapse composite of X-ray images taken by the orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory between the years 2000 and 2015, added to a stock optical frame. The expanding gas cloud is extremely hot, while slightly different expansion speeds have given the cloud a puffy appearance. Although the star that created SN 1572, is likely completely gone, a star dubbed Tycho G, too dim to be discerned here, is thought to be a companion. Finding progenitor remnants of Tycho's supernova is particularly important because the supernova is of Type Ia, an important rung in the distance ladder that calibrates the scale of the visible universe. The peak brightness of Type Ia supernovas is thought to be well understood, making them quite valuable in exploring the relationship between faintness and farness in the distant universe.

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flinga

Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by flinga » Wed Jun 01, 2016 8:46 am

I notice the bluish ring (gravitational lense?) is expanding with the cloud.
Is that expected?

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Ann » Wed Jun 01, 2016 11:20 am

flinga wrote:I notice the bluish ring (gravitational lense?) is expanding with the cloud.
Is that expected?
That is not a gravitational lense. Tycho's supernova is certainly not dense enough to cause any lensing, at least not the kind of lensing that in any way resembles an Einstein ring. Rather the opposite: being the remnant of a Type Ia supernova, this glowing cloud does not contain a white dwarf, much less a neutron star, and most certainly not a black hole. It must be quite fluffy, apart from the fact that the supernova progenitor's companion star might still be present in the nebula.

The bluish outline is probably a shock front, formed when the supernova remnant expands into the surrounding interstellar medium.

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by neufer » Wed Jun 01, 2016 1:12 pm

  • We can easily see the ejecta move, and measure its Doppler shift;
    so why is it so hard to pin down the distance to Tycho's Supernova Remnant :?:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1572 wrote:
<<The distance to [Tycho's Supernova Remnant] has been
estimated to between 2 and 5 kpc.>>
  • 2 kpc : 1572 peak Mv = −7.8
    5 kpc : 1572 peak Mv = −5.8
https://arxiv.org/abs/1009.6031 wrote:
Expansion Velocity of Ejecta in Tycho's Supernova Remnant Measured by Doppler Broadened X-ray Line Emission
Asami Hayato et al. (Submitted on 30 Sep 2010)

<<We show that the expansion of ejecta in Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) is consistent with a spherically symmetric shell, based on Suzaku measurements of the Doppler broadened X-ray emission lines. All the strong K_alpha line emission show broader widths at the center than at the rim, while the centroid energies are constant across the remnant (except for Ca). This is the pattern expected for Doppler broadening due to expansion of the SNR ejecta in a spherical shell. To determine the expansion velocities of the ejecta, we applied a model for each emission line feature having two Gaussian components separately representing red- and blue-shifted gas, and inferred the Doppler velocity difference between these two components directly from the fitted centroid energy difference. Taking into account the effect of projecting a three-dimensional shell to the plane of the detector, we derived average spherical expansion velocities independently for the K_alpha emission of Si, S, Ar, and Fe, and K_beta of Si. We found that the expansion velocities of Si, S, and Ar ejecta of 4700+/-100 km/s are distinctly higher than that obtained from Fe K_alpha emission, 4000+/-300 km/s, which is consistent with segregation of the Fe in the inner ejecta. Combining the observed ejecta velocities with the ejecta proper-motion measurements by Chandra, we derived a distance to the Tycho's SNR of 4+/-1 kpc.>>
https://arxiv.org/abs/1012.5673 wrote:
Tycho SN 1572: A Naked Ia Supernova Remnant without Associated Ambient Molecular Cloud
Wenwu Tian, Denis A. Leahy (Submitted on 27 Dec 2010)

<<The historical supernova remnant (SNR) Tycho SN 1572 originates from the explosion of a normal Type Ia supernova which is believed to have originated from a carbon-oxygen white dwarf in a binary system. We analyze the 21cm continuum, HI and 12CO-line data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey in the direction of SN 1572 and surrounding region. We construct HI absorption spectra to SN 1572 and three nearby compact sources. We conclude that SN 1572 has no molecular cloud interaction, which argues against previous claims that a molecular cloud is interacting with the SNR. This new result does not support a recent claim that dust, newly detected by AKARI, originates from such a SNR-cloud interaction. We suggest that the SNR has a kinematic distance of 2.5 - 3.0 kpc based on a nonlinear rotational curve model. Very-high-energy Gamma-ray emission from the remnant has been detected by the VERITAS telescope, so our result shows that its origin should not be an SNR-cloud interaction. Both radio and X-ray observations support that SN 1572 is an isolated Type Ia SNR.>>
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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Fred the Cat » Wed Jun 01, 2016 2:22 pm

Tyco had a nose for astronomy and kept it to the grindstone working to improve the accuracy of measuring the heavens. If anyone finds it, nosing around, there are people out of joint to find it. Nothing would smell as sweet especially for those needing one. :content:
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Nevermore

Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Nevermore » Wed Jun 01, 2016 2:41 pm

By measuring the rate of expansion of what is probably the shock wave is it possible to calculate an approximate density of the interstellar medium .. thereby giving clues to the theoretical Dark Matter which may constitute the vast majority of what the universe is said to consist of? Or would we first need to have a closer approximation of the size and type of star which exploded?

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by neufer » Wed Jun 01, 2016 2:52 pm

Fred the Cat wrote:
Tyco had a nose for astronomy and kept it to the grindstone working to improve the accuracy of measuring the heavens. If anyone finds it, nosing around, there are people out of joint to find it. Nothing would smell as sweet especially for those needing one. :content:
http://futurama.wikia.com/wiki/Smell-O-Scope wrote:
"If a dog craps anywhere in the universe, you can bet I won't be out of the loop."
  • ―Hubert J. Farnsworth
<<The Smell-O-Scope was an invention created by Professor Farnsworth. It allowed users to smell odors over extremely long distances.>>
http://gizmodo.com/nasal-ranger-smelloscope-will-save-denver-from-stinky-1464506344/1464692251 wrote:

"Nasal Ranger" Smelloscope Will Save Denver From Stinky Pot
Robert Sorokanich [The Telegraph, TheDenverChannel via VICE] 11/14/13

<<Colorado's newly legalized marijuana industry has had an unforeseen dark side: pungent dankness running wild on the noses of innocent citizens. Only a mechanical hero could save them. Call in the Nasal Ranger.

Yes, in order to better investigate odor complaints, Denver Police are using a bizarre-looking nose telescope that quantifies the stinkiness of stinky stinks. The Nasal Ranger Field Olfactometer, designed and manufactured by the family-owned, Minnesota-based business St. Croix Sensory, is actually a rather ingenious device. To function, a dial-operated mixer delivers varying ratios of filtered and full-flavor air to the operator's nose. Meek odors wash out when mixed with small amounts of purified air, while a particularly stinky smell can still remain detectable in a 500:1 mix.

This past summer, Gizmodo's Editor-in-Chief Geoff Manaugh and his wife, writer Nicola Twilley—of NYC cow tunnel fame—visited St. Croix Sensory to learn more about the Nasal Ranger first-hand. Or first-nose, as the case may be. There, the firm's co-founder and technical director, Charles McGinley, led them through the odoriferous process.

To facilitate its use and application, the ingenious smelloscope offers an ODOR TRACK'R GPS-powered app, storing data from every sniff check to create a stink-map. Perfect for keeping an eye (or a nose) on repeat olfactory offenders.

So far, the majority of Denver's doobie dankness complaints have stemmed from growers, not consumers. Wielding the Nasal Ranger, an officer can impose a fine of up to $2,000 for odors detectable beyond an 8:1 clean-to-stinky ratio. Obviously, this isn't new technology; the Nasal Ranger has been used for over a decade to monitor offensive or dangerous odor production in agriculture, industry and sanitation facilities. But legalizing marijuana opens up a whole unfamiliar realm for state governments, and this strange device could give police departments some quantitative sway in arguments between legal pot producers and their scent-sensitive neighbors.Denver Police expect a whole new wave of smell complaints when retail sale of marijuana becomes legal on January 1st, 2014. So you Denverites might want to fan your arms around if you see Johnny Law unholster that smelloscope.>>
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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by neufer » Wed Jun 01, 2016 2:56 pm

Nevermore wrote:
By measuring the rate of expansion of what is probably the shock wave is it possible to calculate an approximate density of the interstellar medium .. thereby giving clues to the theoretical Dark Matter which may constitute the vast majority of what the universe is said to consist of? Or would we first need to have a closer approximation of the size and type of star which exploded?
https://arxiv.org/abs/1012.5673 wrote:
Tycho SN 1572: A Naked Ia Supernova Remnant without Associated Ambient Molecular Cloud
Wenwu Tian, Denis A. Leahy (Submitted on 27 Dec 2010)

<<We conclude that SN 1572 has no molecular cloud interaction,
which argues against previous claims that a molecular cloud is interacting with the SNR.>>
Art Neuendorffer

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Fred the Cat » Wed Jun 01, 2016 3:00 pm

Click to play embedded YouTube video.
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Tekija

Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Tekija » Wed Jun 01, 2016 6:47 pm

That was one of the shortest videos I have seen. But boringly long compared with THE shortest one.

http://www.technoviking.tv/subrealic.ne ... o-1HB.html

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by OB1Kubota » Wed Jun 01, 2016 6:53 pm

Is there data about diameter of the the bubble at the start and then at the end of the observation?

duke-one

Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by duke-one » Wed Jun 01, 2016 8:07 pm

That the gas cloud was "hot" was mentioned, what kind of temperature are we talking about? Thanks, KDM

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Craig Willford » Wed Jun 01, 2016 9:34 pm

I am curious about the color mapping. UV, X-ray and Gamma-ray frequencies are not visible to the human eye (and hopefully not capable of being reproduced by out computer monitors), so to make the image visible, there has to have been a color mapping.

How many frequencies were imaged, what frequencies and to what colors were they assigned, I wonder.

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Craig Willford » Wed Jun 01, 2016 9:36 pm

Oops. ".. our computer monitors .." not ".. out computer monitors"

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Boomer12k » Wed Jun 01, 2016 10:39 pm

The Nature of Explosions..... The Nature of Energy....

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Ann » Wed Jun 01, 2016 11:37 pm

Fred the Cat wrote:Tyco had a nose for astronomy and kept it to the grindstone working to improve the accuracy of measuring the heavens. If anyone finds it, nosing around, there are people out of joint to find it. Nothing would smell as sweet especially for those needing one. :content:
Tycho had a nose for astronomy indeed. His nose is still around, as you can see. I visited the island of Hven when a new Tycho museum had opened and saw what I'm sure is a true story of Tycho visiting a nose-othecary" to buy himself a suitable new nose. My, my, those hotheaded young noblemen settling the question of their honor in duels!

The picture of Tycho's nose was posted by Tycho's associate Johannes Kepler, who, on the other hand, has been accused of possibly murdering Tycho to get hold of his outstanding astronomical observations.

Ann
Last edited by Ann on Thu Jun 02, 2016 4:42 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by geckzilla » Thu Jun 02, 2016 1:52 am

Craig Willford wrote:How many frequencies were imaged, what frequencies and to what colors were they assigned, I wonder.
http://chandra.si.edu/photo/2016/tycho/

The nebula itself is imaged completely in x-ray frequencies. The stars are largely invisible to Chandra. Here are color assignments as given by that page I linked to:
X-ray (Red 0.95-1.26 keV, Green 1.63-2.26 keV, Blue 4.1-6.1 keV), Optical (Red, Green, Blue)

Note the optical red, green, and blue applies ONLY to the stars in the image and that those aren't animated. The stars are there as a single frame in order to give a little extra context to the nebula.
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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by neufer » Thu Jun 02, 2016 3:24 am

Ann wrote:
The picture of Tycho's nose was posted by Tycho's associate Johannes Kepler, who, on the other hand, has been accused of possibly murdering Tycho to get hold of his outstanding astronomical observations.
  • [Miles Monroe (Woody Allen) holds a gun to a disembodied nose]
Miles Monroe: Don't take another step or the president gets it between the eyes.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleeper_%281973_film%29 wrote:
Sleeper (1973 Woody Allen film)

Miles Monroe: We're here to see the nose. I hear it was running.

<<Miles and Luna infiltrate the Aries Project, wherein they quickly learn that the national leader had been killed by a rebel bomb ten months previously. All that survives is his nose. Other members of the Aries Project, mistaking Miles and Luna for doctors, expect them to clone the leader from this single remaining part. Miles steals the nose and "assassinates" it by dropping it in the path of a road roller.>>
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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Hoehandle » Thu Jun 02, 2016 10:00 am

Did anyone see the tiny, bright spot of light appearing just above vertical center and about 1/3 of the distance from the right edge of the expansion ring to the right frame edge? Visible on my laptop especially set at !/4 frame speed and full definition.

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Fred the Cat » Fri Jun 03, 2016 2:26 pm

Ann wrote:
Fred the Cat wrote:Tyco had a nose for astronomy and kept it to the grindstone working to improve the accuracy of measuring the heavens. If anyone finds it, nosing around, there are people out of joint to find it. Nothing would smell as sweet especially for those needing one. :content:
Tycho had a nose for astronomy indeed. His nose is still around, as you can see. I visited the island of Hven when a new Tycho museum had opened and saw what I'm sure is a true story of Tycho visiting a nose-othecary" to buy himself a suitable new nose. My, my, those hotheaded young noblemen settling the question of their honor in duels!

The picture of Tycho's nose was posted by Tycho's associate Johannes Kepler, who, on the other hand, has been accused of possibly murdering Tycho to get hold of his outstanding astronomical observations.

Ann
You don't suppose Brahe was catting around? A follow-up to this article in SA seem to vindicate the usual suspects but leave his ultimate demise for more "nosing" around. :kitty:
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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Ann » Fri Jun 03, 2016 7:04 pm

Fred the Cat wrote:
You don't suppose Brahe was catting around? :kitty:
You mean it was not the honorable cut of a sword that robbed Tycho of his nose, but the gangrenous effects of syphilis?

Say it wasn't so!!! :cry:

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Re: APOD: Tycho's Supernova Remnant Expands (2016 Jun 01)

Post by Fred the Cat » Sun Jun 05, 2016 5:52 pm

Ann wrote:
Fred the Cat wrote:
You don't suppose Brahe was catting around?
You mean it was not the honorable cut of a sword that robbed Tycho of his nose, but the gangrenous effects of syphilis?

Say it wasn't so!!!

Ann
I think his loss of face :wink: was much more noble the his suspected ultimate demise but probably just as painful. I was surmising that the mercury might have been used to treat a fairly common affliction of the time (from an ignoble affection :oops:) and could have been the reason it was detected. Apothecaries of the time had a limited formulary. :(
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