APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

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APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by APOD Robot » Thu Dec 10, 2020 5:06 am

Image Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant

Explanation: It's easy to get lost following the intricate looping filaments in this detailed image of supernova remnant Simeis 147. Also cataloged as Sharpless 2-240 it goes by the popular nickname, the Spaghetti Nebula. Seen toward the boundary of the constellations Taurus and Auriga, it covers nearly 3 degrees or 6 full moons on the sky. That's about 150 light-years at the stellar debris cloud's estimated distance of 3,000 light-years. This composite includes image data taken through narrow-band filters where reddish emission from ionized hydrogen atoms and doubly ionized oxygen atoms in faint blue-green hues trace the shocked, glowing gas. The supernova remnant has an estimated age of about 40,000 years, meaning light from the massive stellar explosion first reached Earth 40,000 years ago. But the expanding remnant is not the only aftermath. The cosmic catastrophe also left behind a spinning neutron star or pulsar, all that remains of the original star's core.

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Sa Ji Tario

Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by Sa Ji Tario » Thu Dec 10, 2020 11:51 am

Asymmetric explosion or carryover effects?

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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by orin stepanek » Thu Dec 10, 2020 1:01 pm

S147_GeorgesAttard1024.jpg

Star's debris that will be recycle material! Very pretty gas and
dust! I'd call it the pig nebula! :mrgreen:
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by neufer » Thu Dec 10, 2020 4:48 pm

Sa Ji Tario wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 11:51 am

Asymmetric explosion or carryover effects?
  • Its pulsar may be having some influences; however, this old & large (~150 light years)
    is mostly shaped by its complex environment... much like The Jellyfish Nebula: IC 443 :
https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap101220.html wrote:
<<IC 443 (also known as the Jellyfish Nebula and Sharpless 248 (Sh2-248)) is a galactic supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation Gemini. Its distance is roughly 5,000 light years from Earth. IC 443 may be the remains of a supernova that occurred 3,000 - 30,000 years ago. The same supernova event likely created the neutron star CXOU J061705.3+222127, the collapsed remnant of the stellar core. IC 443 is one of the best-studied cases of supernova remnants interacting with surrounding molecular clouds.

IC 443 is an extended source, having an angular diameter of 50 arcmin; at the estimated distance of 5,000 ly (1,500 parsec) from Earth, it corresponds to a physical size of roughly 70 light years (vs. ~ 150 light years for Simeis 147).

The remnant is evolving in a rich and complex environment, which strongly affects its morphology. Multi-wavelength observations show the presence of sharp density gradients and different cloud geometries in the surroundings of IC 443. Massive stars are known to be short lived (roughly 30 million years), ending their life when they are still embedded within the progenitor cloud. The more massive stars (O-type) probably clear the circum-stellar environment by powerful stellar winds or photoionizing radiation. Early B-type stars, with a typical mass between 8 and 12 solar masses, are not capable of this, and they likely interact with the primordial molecular cloud when they explode. Thus, it is not surprising that the SNR IC 443, which is thought to be the aftermath of a stellar explosion, evolved in such a complex environment. For instance, an appreciable fraction of supernova remnants lies close to dense molecular clouds (~50 out of 265 in the Green catalogue), and most of them (~60%) show clear signs of interaction with the adjacent cloud.

X-ray and the optical images are characterized by a dark lane, crossing IC 443 from northwest to southeast. Emission from quiescent molecular gas has been observed toward the same direction, and it is likely due to a giant molecular cloud, located between the remnant and the observer. This is the main source of extinction of the low energy SNR emission.

In the southeast the blast wave is interacting with a very dense (~10,000 cm−3) and clumpy molecular cloud, such that the emitting shocked gas has a ring-like shape. The blast wave has been strongly decelerated by the cloud and is moving with an estimated velocity of roughly 30–40 km s−1. OH (1720 MHz) maser emission, which is a robust tracer of interaction between SNRs and dense molecular clouds, has been detected in this region. A source of gamma-ray radiation is spatially coincident with IC 443 and the maser emission region, though is not well understood whether it is physically associated with the remnant or not.

In the northeast, where the brightest optical filaments are located, the SNR is interacting with a very different environment. The forward shock has encountered a wall of neutral hydrogen (HI), and is propagating into a less dense medium (~10-1,000 cm−3) with a much higher velocity (80–100 km s−1) than in the southern ridge.

In the western region, the shock wave breaks out into a more homogeneous and rarefied medium.>>
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by misha » Thu Dec 10, 2020 6:16 pm

If it's 3,000 light years distant, it takes 3,000 years for the light to reach Earth. If the explosion happened 40,000 years ago (quite recent, actually!), the first light of the explosion would have reached Earth 43,000 years ago.

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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by johnnydeep » Thu Dec 10, 2020 7:02 pm

APOD Robot wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 5:06 am
Image Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant

Explanation: It's easy to get lost following the intricate looping filaments in this detailed image of supernova remnant Simeis 147. Also cataloged as Sharpless 2-240 it goes by the popular nickname, the Spaghetti Nebula. Seen toward the boundary of the constellations Taurus and Auriga, it covers nearly 3 degrees or 6 full moons on the sky. That's about 150 light-years at the stellar debris cloud's estimated distance of 3,000 light-years. This composite includes image data taken through narrow-band filters where reddish emission from ionized hydrogen atoms and doubly ionized oxygen atoms in faint blue-green hues trace the shocked, glowing gas. The supernova remnant has an estimated age of about 40,000 years, meaning light from the massive stellar explosion first reached Earth 40,000 years ago. But the expanding remnant is not the only aftermath. The cosmic catastrophe also left behind a spinning neutron star or pulsar, all that remains of the original star's core.
I was wondering about the use of the descriptive phrase "looping filaments", aka "spaghetti". Wouldn't the "filaments" we are seeing be more likely to be the optical result of "edge darkening" of many overlapping bubbles of gas and dust?
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by neufer » Thu Dec 10, 2020 8:57 pm

johnnydeep wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 7:02 pm

I was wondering about the use of the descriptive phrase "looping filaments", aka "spaghetti". Wouldn't the "filaments" we are seeing be more likely to be the optical result of "edge darkening" of many overlapping bubbles of gas and dust?
Indeed :!:
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by neufer » Thu Dec 10, 2020 9:14 pm

misha wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 6:16 pm

If it's 3,000 light years distant, it takes 3,000 years for the light to reach Earth. If the explosion happened 40,000 years ago (quite recent, actually!), the first light of the explosion would have reached Earth 43,000 years ago.
The observed supernova remnant has an estimated age of about 40,000 years:
meaning light from the massive stellar explosion first reached Earth 40,000 years ago.


Einstein abandoned the Newtonian concept of absolute time
with both his special & general relativity theories.

Cosmologists adopt a quite different concept of absolute time in regard to
age after the Big Bang... but most astronomy can easily ignore this technicality.
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by NCTom » Thu Dec 10, 2020 9:27 pm

Hydrogen and oxygen are revealed in the photo. What heavier elements would be detectable in significant amounts with the right instruments?

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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by Chris Peterson » Thu Dec 10, 2020 9:34 pm

misha wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 6:16 pm
If it's 3,000 light years distant, it takes 3,000 years for the light to reach Earth. If the explosion happened 40,000 years ago (quite recent, actually!), the first light of the explosion would have reached Earth 43,000 years ago.
"Happened 40,000 years ago" means we're seeing a structure that has evolved 40,000 years since the supernova. So the light of that supernova reached Earth 40,000 years ago. The distance to the object is irrelevant.
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by neufer » Thu Dec 10, 2020 10:18 pm

https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0611068 wrote:
The Origin and Motion of PSR J0538+2817 in S147
C.-Y. Ng, Roger W. Romani, Walter F. Brisken, Shami Chatterjee, Michael Kramer

<<We report on VLBA astrometry and CXO imaging of PSR J0538+2817 in the supernova remnant S147... The neutron star is hot, consistent with the young ~40kyr kinematic age.

The pulsar progenitor is likely a runaway from a nearby cluster, with NGC 1960 (M36) a leading candidate.
>>
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_36 wrote: <<Messier 36 or M36, also known as NGC 1960, is an open cluster of stars in the Auriga constellation. It was discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierna before 1654, who described it as a nebulous patch. The cluster was independently re-discovered by Guillaume Le Gentil in 1749, then Charles Messier observed it in 1764 and added it to his catalogue. M36 is at a distance of about 1,330 pc (4,340 light years) away from Earth. The cluster is very similar to the Pleiades cluster (M45), and if it were the same distance from Earth it would be of similar magnitude.

This cluster has a mass of roughly 746 M and a linear tidal radius of 10.6±1.6 pc. Based upon photometry, the age of the cluster has been estimated by Wu et al. (2009) as 25.1 Myr and 26.3 Myr by Bell et al. (2013). The luminosity of the stars that have not yet consumed their lithium implies an age of 22±4 Myr, in good agreement these previous estimates. M36 includes ten stars with a visual magnitude brighter than 10, and 178 down to magnitude 14. 38 members display an infrared excess, with one being particularly high. There is one candidate B-type variable star, which is 9th magnitude.>>
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by johnnydeep » Thu Dec 10, 2020 10:38 pm

neufer wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 8:57 pm
johnnydeep wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 7:02 pm

I was wondering about the use of the descriptive phrase "looping filaments", aka "spaghetti". Wouldn't the "filaments" we are seeing be more likely to be the optical result of "edge darkening" of many overlapping bubbles of gas and dust?
Indeed :!:
----------------------------------------------------------------
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Funny, I do see the resemblance! But I don't remember Pigs In Space being that gruesome!
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by mzoo » Fri Dec 11, 2020 3:02 am

Lol Capt Link Hogthrob. Thanks for the beautiful image and the laugh. I needed it!
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by VictorBorun » Fri Dec 11, 2020 5:17 pm

johnnydeep wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 7:02 pm
I was wondering about the use of the descriptive phrase "looping filaments", aka "spaghetti". Wouldn't the "filaments" we are seeing be more likely to be the optical result of "edge darkening" of many overlapping bubbles of gas and dust?
I wonder if there is a small cosmology modelling SN remnants like the big cosmology models voids, branes, filaments and galaxy clusters growing from the pattern we see in CMB.

Are quegli spaghetti just ghost filaments of magnetic structures in SN or have there been secondary explosions forming a bubbling foam?
In short, are they 1- or 2-dimension dense things?

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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by neufer » Fri Dec 11, 2020 5:35 pm

VictorBorun wrote:
Fri Dec 11, 2020 5:17 pm
johnnydeep wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 7:02 pm

I was wondering about the use of the descriptive phrase "looping filaments", aka "spaghetti". Wouldn't the "filaments" we are seeing be more likely to be the optical result of "edge darkening" of many overlapping bubbles of gas and dust?
I wonder if there is a small cosmology modelling SN remnants like the big cosmology models voids, branes, filaments and galaxy clusters growing from the pattern we see in CMB.

Are quegli spaghetti just ghost filaments of magnetic structures in SN or have there been secondary explosions forming a bubbling foam?
In short, are they 1- or 2-dimension dense things?
Quegli spaghetti are 1-dimensional intersections of 2-dimensional shock fronts.

http://asterisk.apod.com/viewtopic.php? ... 34#p308860

Magnetic interactions are not immediately obvious.
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by VictorBorun » Tue Dec 22, 2020 11:26 am

neufer wrote:
Fri Dec 11, 2020 5:35 pm

Quegli spaghetti are 1-dimensional intersections of 2-dimensional shock fronts.

http://asterisk.apod.com/viewtopic.php? ... 34#p308860
I just don't get it. To have a spherical shock front crossing another spherical shock front we must have two different centers, must we not?

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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by neufer » Tue Dec 22, 2020 4:01 pm

VictorBorun wrote:
Tue Dec 22, 2020 11:26 am
neufer wrote:
Fri Dec 11, 2020 5:35 pm

Quegli spaghetti are 1-dimensional intersections of 2-dimensional shock fronts.

http://asterisk.apod.com/viewtopic.php? ... 34#p308860
I just don't get it. To have a spherical shock front crossing another spherical shock front we must have two different centers, must we not?
https://interestingengineering.com/filming-the-first-milliseconds-of-a-nuclear-explosion-with-the-rapatronic-a-1950-engineering-marvel wrote:
Filming the First Milliseconds of a Nuclear Explosion with the Rapatronic: A 1950 Engineering Marvel
By Maverick Baker, July 06, 2018



This is a mosaic image, one of the largest ever taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, of the Crab Nebula, a six-light-year-wide expanding remnant of a star's supernova explosion. Japanese and Chinese astronomers recorded this violent event in 1054 CE, as did, almost certainly, Native Americans. The orange filaments are the tattered remains of the star and consist mostly of hydrogen. The rapidly spinning neutron star embedded in the center of the nebula is the dynamo powering the nebula's eerie interior bluish glow. The blue light comes from electrons whirling at nearly the speed of light around magnetic field lines from the neutron star. The neutron star, like a lighthouse, ejects twin beams of radiation that appear to pulse 30 times a second due to the neutron star's rotation. A neutron star is the crushed ultra-dense core of the exploded star. The Crab Nebula derived its name from its appearance in a drawing made by Irish astronomer Lord Rosse in 1844, using a 36-inch telescope. When viewed by Hubble, as well as by large ground-based telescopes such as the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Crab Nebula takes on a more detailed appearance that yields clues into the spectacular demise of a star, 6,500 light-years away. The newly composed image was assembled from 24 individual Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures taken in October 1999, January 2000, and December 2000. The colors in the image indicate the different elements that were expelled during the explosion. Blue in the filaments in the outer part of the nebula represents neutral oxygen, green is singly-ionized sulfur, and red indicates doubly-ionized oxygen.


<<Filming the first microseconds of a nuclear explosion today requires incredibly powerful cameras with ultra-fast frame rates and practically instantaneous shutter speeds restricted to government research bodies. Only ultra-high speed cameras mostly restricted to academic institutions or government research bodies possess the ability to record anything remotely close to the beginning of a nuclear explosion.

It would seem virtually impossible for anyone to produce a camera with such abilities in the early 1950's. But determined by a new era of unfathomed nuclear science, scientists would soon develop a new system to capture every passing millisecond of a nuclear explosion. This is the story of the Rapatronic camera -the first camera to reveal the first milliseconds of a nuclear explosion with awry and unprecedented detail.

In the wake of the nuclear blasts which devastated the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, scientists were left bewildered by the monstrous creation of the United States - the atomic bombs of Little Man and Fat Boy. But amidst the destruction arose an eager curiosity, leaving scientists to wonder, what is going on inside a nuclear explosion?

1950 cameras were still quite rudimentary as one might expect. Film cameras ran rampant, but most could only take a picture no faster than 1/300th of a second - much too slow to capture any useful information about an atomic blast. Still images had captured instantaneous moments in nuclear explosions before, but they could not take photos with rapid enough succession or with enough precision to stitch a video together sufficient enough to provide any useful insight researchers have not previously observed. It would be Dr. Harold Edgerton who would be tasked with developing a rapatronic camera - a camera system able to take photographs at a frame rate of 10 million frames per second.

The impressibly fast shutter speed was made possible through an ingenious mechanism which could open and close a shutter seemingly instantaneously. Effectively, a coil was wrapped around a special glass cylinder. When induced with an electric current, the magnetic field created by the coils opens and closes the shutter in rapid succession (see video below). The rapid action and electronic nature of the device would lead to its name, the Rapatronic.

But it was not particularly the shutter speed - the time in which a shutter exposes a sensor to light - which prevented scientists from recording the first few milliseconds of a nuclear detonation before. Rather, the problem arose from a lack of ability to take photos with unfathomably fast shutter speeds in rapid succession. In other words, cameras simply did not have a frame rate fast enough to capture the first milliseconds of a nuclear explosion.

The solution to a buffered frame rate would not come as an improvement to a single camera's frame rate. Instead, a rotating mirror would redirect light up to a curved film sitting above the mirror. Between each shutter actuation, the mirror would rotate slightly, enabling the next frame to be taken as quickly as 10 billionths of a second later. "The exposures were often as short as 10 billionths of a second, and each camera could take only one photograph. As a result, banks of four to 10 cameras were set up to take sequences of photographs during a single nuclear test." According to Nevada National Security Site (NNSS).

Below, Charles Wyckoff, one of the developers of the Rapatronic camera, explains the technology he and Dr. Edgerton created to record ultra-slow motion video of a nuclear explosion.

Despite its primary objective centering around measure the size of the explosion as it expanded, the Rapatronic camera lead to the discovery of a particularly interesting phenomenon. Examining the ultra-slow motion video revealed mottling of the fireball - the appearance of spots and smears of color which propagated through the fireball. It was the first time such an effect had been observed, which lead to an intriguing discovery. According to NNSS, the initial growth of the fireball following an explosion is accelerated by radioactive transport - essentially thermal x-rays which "outpace" the actual exploding bomb debris. Just Milliseconds later, a shock front forms, forcing further expansion of the fireball. However, as the shock waves heat up the surrounding air, they create a barrier and slow down the expansion of the fireball. "The debris from the actual bomb and shot cab is vaporized, and the vapors are initially accelerated to very high velocities before the shock front forms. Once the shock front forms, clumps of the material splash against the back of the shock front in an irregular pattern creating the mottled appearance." NNSS explains.>>
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Re: APOD: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant (2020 Dec 10)

Post by VictorBorun » Fri Dec 25, 2020 10:25 pm

neufer wrote:
Tue Dec 22, 2020 4:01 pm
Once the shock front forms, clumps of the material splash against the back of the shock front in an irregular pattern creating the mottled appearance.
So the shock front is like a lamp light when some clumps cast shadows, that are irregular cones in 3d space, every one having the same center as the apex?