APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Comments and questions about the APOD on the main view screen.
User avatar
APOD Robot
Otto Posterman
Posts: 5398
Joined: Fri Dec 04, 2009 3:27 am

APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by APOD Robot » Wed Oct 11, 2023 4:11 am

Image NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova

Explanation: What's happening in the lower arm of this spiral galaxy? A supernova. Last month, supernova SN 2023rve was discovered with UAE's Al-Khatim Observatory and later found to be consistent with the death explosion of a massive star, possibly leaving behind a black hole. Spiral galaxy NGC 1097 is a relatively close 45 million light years away and visible with a small telescope toward the southern constellation of the Furnace (Fornax). The galaxy is notable not only for its picturesque spiral arms, but also for faint jets consistent with ancient star streams left over from a galactic collision -- possibly with the small galaxy seen between its arms on the lower left. The featured image highlights the new supernova by blinking between two exposures taken several months apart. Finding supernovas in nearby galaxies can be important in determining the scale and expansion rate of our entire universe -- a topic currently of unexpected tension and much debate.

<< Previous APOD This Day in APOD Next APOD >>

User avatar
Ann
4725 Å
Posts: 13476
Joined: Sat May 29, 2010 5:33 am

Re: APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by Ann » Wed Oct 11, 2023 6:12 am

APOD 11October 2023.png
NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova.
Image Data: Telescope Live (Chile); Image Processing & Copyright: Bernard Miller

Interesting! I like supernovas. As you could see from one of the links in the caption, SN 2023rve is a type II supernova, which means that it's a core-collapse supernova whose massive progenitor exploded when it had built up an iron core. The stars that end up as type II supernovas are massive stars that fuse and use up all their available fuel in their fight against gravity until they have created an inert iron core, after which their supernova demise is imminent.


Type II supernovas vary a lot when it comes to absolute luminosity. They are not like type Ia supernovas, which are white dwarf stars that accrete mass until they explode when their cores exceed 1.4 solar masses. When supernovas type Ia explode, they literally "go up in smoke" and leave no remnant behind, since all of the mass they contain "is turned into energy". (I'm sure that's not exactly correct, Chris. Please do correct me.)


Type II supernovas are different, since they almost always leave a remnant behind, usually a neutron star. Sometimes they leave a black hole behind, but I don't think that we have witnessed an explosion where astronomers have been confident that the stellar core had turned into a black hole.

Type II supernovas don't have a typical luminosity, since they can explode at different masses and with different amounts of gas and dust surrounding the core. I think, however, that type Ia supernovas are often visually brighter than type II supernovas. Type Ia supernovas do have a "typical peak luminosity", which is magnitude −19.5. Type II supernovas are often not that visually bright. But they are often more powerful, since most of their energy is released as a tsunami of invisible neutrinos.

As for SN2023rve, its peak apparent magnitude was +14. The apparent magnitude of the entire galaxy itself, NGC 2097, is 9.5, according to my software. In astronomy, the lower the magnitude is, the brighter is the object.

I'd like to write a lot about NGC 1097 as well, but I have no time. So I'll stop now.

Ann

P.S. I really, really recommend this gif where you can see the evolution of a type Ia supernova! :D

P.P.S. This is my post number 13000. If Art Neuendorffer had been here, he would have made a post about that in the Thousand Post Club thread.

Art, I miss you. :(
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.
Last edited by Ann on Thu Oct 12, 2023 3:43 am, edited 1 time in total.
Color Commentator

MoonRockMan
Ensign
Posts: 22
Joined: Tue Jan 04, 2022 5:39 pm

Re: APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by MoonRockMan » Wed Oct 11, 2023 5:32 pm

Any idea if the differences between the two images--apart from the supernova--are because of differences in sky conditions at the respective times or because of brightening from the nova?

User avatar
Chris Peterson
Abominable Snowman
Posts: 18260
Joined: Wed Jan 31, 2007 11:13 pm
Location: Guffey, Colorado, USA

Re: APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by Chris Peterson » Wed Oct 11, 2023 6:03 pm

MoonRockMan wrote: Wed Oct 11, 2023 5:32 pm Any idea if the differences between the two images--apart from the supernova--are because of differences in sky conditions at the respective times or because of brightening from the nova?
Nothing to do with the SN. It's just really difficult image processing to create two identical images of the same object taken at different times, even with identical sky conditions. Even more so with color. A series of non-linear stretches is normally part of the processing workflow, and the exact details are seldom recorded. So matching a new image to an old one is just done by eyeball.
Chris

*****************************************
Chris L Peterson
Cloudbait Observatory
https://www.cloudbait.com

MoonRockMan
Ensign
Posts: 22
Joined: Tue Jan 04, 2022 5:39 pm

Re: APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by MoonRockMan » Wed Oct 11, 2023 7:16 pm

Chris Peterson wrote: Wed Oct 11, 2023 6:03 pm
MoonRockMan wrote: Wed Oct 11, 2023 5:32 pm Any idea if the differences between the two images--apart from the supernova--are because of differences in sky conditions at the respective times or because of brightening from the nova?
Nothing to do with the SN. It's just really difficult image processing to create two identical images of the same object taken at different times, even with identical sky conditions. Even more so with color. A series of non-linear stretches is normally part of the processing workflow, and the exact details are seldom recorded. So matching a new image to an old one is just done by eyeball.
Very interesting! Thanks for the explanation.

User avatar
AVAO
Commander
Posts: 554
Joined: Tue May 28, 2019 12:24 pm
AKA: multiwavelength traveller
Location: Zurich, Switzerland

Re: APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by AVAO » Wed Oct 11, 2023 7:44 pm

Image
today's APOD

Would have been an interesting image with JWST too... Here the version with the SST / Jac Berne (flickr)
bigger:https://live.staticflickr.com/65535/532 ... 028b_o.jpg

User avatar
orin stepanek
Plutopian
Posts: 8200
Joined: Wed Jul 27, 2005 3:41 pm
Location: Nebraska

Re: APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by orin stepanek » Wed Oct 11, 2023 8:43 pm

Ngc1097wSn_Miller_1008.gif
Star dies in NGC1097! Sad for any life that may have lived there!
f7a40951e62342cf0671e34dcb8dbec2.jpg
Kitty's photo taken by surprise!
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.
Orin

Smile today; tomorrow's another day!

User avatar
johnnydeep
Commodore
Posts: 2923
Joined: Sun Feb 20, 2011 8:57 pm

Re: APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by johnnydeep » Wed Oct 11, 2023 8:51 pm

I find it pretty strange that the jets from a likely ancient collision, and shown in the "faint jets" link are so arrow-straight (with the exception of the even more strange "T" bar at the end of the lower jet!). Why would the jets not be - at least somewhat - curved?

--
"To B̬̻̋̚o̞̮̚̚l̘̲̀᷾d̫͓᷅ͩḷ̯᷁ͮȳ͙᷊͠ Go......Beyond The F͇̤i̙̖e̤̟l̡͓d͈̹s̙͚ We Know."{ʲₒʰₙNYᵈₑᵉₚ}

User avatar
Ann
4725 Å
Posts: 13476
Joined: Sat May 29, 2010 5:33 am

Re: APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by Ann » Thu Oct 12, 2023 3:44 am

johnnydeep wrote: Wed Oct 11, 2023 8:51 pm I find it pretty strange that the jets from a likely ancient collision, and shown in the "faint jets" link are so arrow-straight (with the exception of the even more strange "T" bar at the end of the lower jet!). Why would the jets not be - at least somewhat - curved?

I agree that it is strange that the jets are so arrow-straight. They do look like gaseous remnants of outbursts from the accretion disk of the black hole. But since they are made of stars, not gas, I suppose we have to accept that they are star streams and thus remnants of galaxies that have been "eaten" by NGC 1097.

Ann
Color Commentator

User avatar
Ann
4725 Å
Posts: 13476
Joined: Sat May 29, 2010 5:33 am

Re: APOD: NGC 1097: Spiral Galaxy with Supernova (2023 Oct 11)

Post by Ann » Thu Oct 12, 2023 4:29 am

I said I would write a little about NGC 1097, and I will, even though it's almost time for a new APOD!

I'm fascinated by the morphology of NGC 1097. It has an almost perfectly circular (but actually spiral-shaped) merrily starforming bright inner ring surrounding the nucleus. And it has a long oval-shaped bar-bulge which is surrounded by a large, rather faint but still starforming outer ring.


NGC 1097 has two arms, but one arm is severely distorted and broken up due to the presence of a small but clearly relatively massive satellite dwarf galaxy that is positively entangled in one of the arms of NGC 1097. This morphology is clearly seen in a Spitzer infrared image:


All right. Take a look at this JWST-HST-VLT/MUSE-ALMA image:



Well, wow. Doesn't it look good? Talk about an inner ring + outer ring barred spiral galaxy! But really, is this truly NGC 1097?

It is not. It is NGC 1512. And there is a fantastic GALEX image showing how its entire arm system NGC 1512 is broken up by its interaction with a small satellite galaxy of NGC 1512, namely NGC 1510!


I find it absolutely fascinating that NGC 1097 and NGC 1512 show so many similarities. Even though they are, of course, different too.

Ann
Color Commentator