Anti matters

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jamesmustain
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Anti matters

Post by jamesmustain » Thu Dec 10, 2020 10:33 am

Hi,

I was watching an old lecture at Gresham College when an old conceptual area I had heard numerous times before arose. That there was a "slight preponderance" of matter over anti matter in the early universe. I fail to see why that should be. I can see that things here are composed of matter, that other things in the solar system so far investigated are matter, that possibly the entire galaxy or galactic group is matter. How can one tell that, for example, the Coma Cluster is not comprised entirely of antimatter? A star fusing anti protons to form anti Helium emits what, anti energy, I doubt it. Then again, we hear all the time of dark matter and dark energy.

Thanks!

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neufer
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Re: Anti matters

Post by neufer » Thu Dec 10, 2020 5:06 pm

jamesmustain wrote:
Thu Dec 10, 2020 10:33 am

I was watching an old lecture at Gresham College when an old conceptual area I had heard numerous times before arose. That there was a "slight preponderance" of matter over anti matter in the early universe. I fail to see why that should be. I can see that things here are composed of matter, that other things in the solar system so far investigated are matter, that possibly the entire galaxy or galactic group is matter. How can one tell that, for example, the Coma Cluster is not comprised entirely of antimatter? A star fusing anti protons to form anti Helium emits what, anti energy, I doubt it. Then again, we hear all the time of dark matter and dark energy.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baryon_asymmetry wrote:
<<In physical cosmology, the baryon asymmetry problem, also known as the matter asymmetry problem or the matter–antimatter asymmetry problem, is the observed imbalance in baryonic matter (the type of matter experienced in everyday life) and antibaryonic matter in the observable universe. Neither the standard model of particle physics, nor the theory of general relativity provides a known explanation for why this should be so, and it is a natural assumption that the universe is neutral with all conserved charges. The Big Bang should have produced equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Since this does not seem to have been the case, it is likely some physical laws must have acted differently or did not exist for matter and antimatter. Several competing hypotheses exist to explain the imbalance of matter and antimatter that resulted in baryogenesis. However, there is as of yet no consensus theory to explain the phenomenon. As remarked in a 2012 research paper, "The origin of matter remains one of the great mysteries in physics."

A possible explanation of the apparent baryon asymmetry is that matter and antimatter are essentially separated into different, widely distant regions of the universe. The formation of antimatter galaxies was originally thought to explain the baryon asymmetry, as from a distance, antimatter atoms are indistinguishable from matter atoms; both produce light (photons) in the same way. Along the boundary between matter and antimatter regions, however, annihilation (and the subsequent production of gamma radiation) would be detectable, depending on its distance and the density of matter and antimatter. Such boundaries, if they exist, would likely lie in deep intergalactic space. The density of matter in intergalactic space is reasonably well established at about one atom per cubic meter. Assuming this is a typical density near a boundary, the gamma ray luminosity of the boundary interaction zone can be calculated. No such zones have been detected, but 30 years of research have placed bounds on how far they might be. On the basis of such analyses, it is now deemed unlikely that any region within the observable universe is dominated by antimatter.>>
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimatter#Origin_and_asymmetry wrote:
<<Most matter observable from the Earth seems to be made of matter rather than antimatter. If antimatter-dominated regions of space existed, the gamma rays produced in annihilation reactions along the boundary between matter and antimatter regions would be detectable.

Antiparticles are created everywhere in the universe where high-energy particle collisions take place. High-energy cosmic rays impacting Earth's atmosphere (or any other matter in the Solar System) produce minute quantities of antiparticles in the resulting particle jets, which are immediately annihilated by contact with nearby matter. They may similarly be produced in regions like the center of the Milky Way and other galaxies, where very energetic celestial events occur (principally the interaction of relativistic jets with the interstellar medium). The presence of the resulting antimatter is detectable by the two gamma rays produced every time positrons annihilate with nearby matter. The frequency and wavelength of the gamma rays indicate that each carries 511 keV of energy.

Observations by the European Space Agency's INTEGRAL satellite may explain the origin of a giant antimatter cloud surrounding the galactic center. The observations show that the cloud is asymmetrical and matches the pattern of X-ray binaries (binary star systems containing black holes or neutron stars), mostly on one side of the galactic center. While the mechanism is not fully understood, it is likely to involve the production of electron–positron pairs, as ordinary matter gains kinetic energy while falling into a stellar remnant.

Antimatter may exist in relatively large amounts in far-away galaxies due to cosmic inflation in the primordial time of the universe. Antimatter galaxies, if they exist, are expected to have the same chemistry and absorption and emission spectra as normal-matter galaxies, and their astronomical objects would be observationally identical, making them difficult to distinguish. NASA is trying to determine if such galaxies exist by looking for X-ray and gamma-ray signatures of annihilation events in colliding superclusters.>>
Art Neuendorffer

edcarrillo
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Re: Anti matters

Post by edcarrillo » Wed Dec 30, 2020 1:49 am

Most matter observable from the Earth seems to be made of matter rather than antimatter. If antimatter-dominated regions of space existed, the gamma rays produced in annihilation reactions along the boundary between matter and antimatter regions would be detectable.
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